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'a dau = Richard brother of Sir Jas. Carroll.[3]
[3] I'
Source record I: Chancery & Exchequer Inquisitions post mortem
Sir James Carroll was Mayor of Dublin. 
Synnott, [Unknown] (I8134)
2 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3318)

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 15:
'Walter of Ballybrennan = Mary Masterson dau of Sir Thomas Masterson.'
Mary Masterson, daughter of Sir Thomas Masterson, should not be confused with her niece Mary Masterson, daughter of Sir Richard Masterson. Both Marys married a Walter Synnot, one the uncle of the other. 
Masterson, Mary (I10603)

There is a record of a James Martin, born in Ireland abt 1758-1759, being in prison in Middlesex in 1792-1793. He was 5 ft 8 in tall with grey eyes, black hair and sallow complexion. This is unlikely to be the same James, as the prisoner was sentenced to transportation.

James Martin, Surgeon, formerly of the ship Nimrod, was on the List of Lunatic Seamen and Marines, &c, of the Surgeon to the Institution at Hoxton. He was received into the asylum on 21 Jun 1807.

James' first wife Jane has been included on flimsy evidence. She is recorded on the 1804 baptism entry of Thomas Martin, son of James and Jane. The baptism was at the Sion Chapel, Union St, London, the same place where James and Mara's 4 sons Robert, James, Thomas and Charles Henry were baptised in 1818. There is also a burial for a Selina Martin in 1807 - she is presumed to be a child of James and Jane because of the name Selina Sarah - uncommon, and the name of James' sister.

The burial transcriptions for the Greater London Burial Index and the England & Wales Non-conformist burials, both on, both give Selina Sarah's burial date as 6 Oct 1804 and her age at death as 7 months. However, Greater London says she was born 1804 and Non-conformist says 1803. There is a similar one-year discrepancy in the Non-conformist record for Thomas Martin (died 1807), presumed to be Selina's brother. It seems likely that Thomas and Selina were both born abt Mar 1804 i.e. they were twins.

In The London Gazette in 1813, James gave notice that on 23 Oct 1812 he had presented his petition to the Court of Relief for Insolvent Debtors at 6 Carey St, Lincoln's Inn, praying to be discharged from custody, and to have his future liberty against the persons named as his creditors on the schedule annexed to the petition. That Court had ordered that the matter be heard in the Court at the Guildhall of the City of Westminster on Thursday 2 Dec 1812 at 9am. That Court saw fit to dispense with James serving the creditors on the schedule, who were listed in the Gazette, the Times and the Traveller, 'of which my said creditors hereinbefore named are hereby required to take notice.'

The creditors were:
Thomas Hughes, Percival-street, Northampton-square, builder;
William Shepherd, Eagle-street, Piccadilly, artist;
Mr Tyler, Broad-street, St. Giles, broker;
Matthew Wigham, High Holborn, apothecary;
Robert Newbury, Gibraltar, merchant;
Mt Joseph Parke, Gibraltar, merchant;
John Miller, Bowe-street, Covent-garden, bookseller;
Mr Barnard, Skinner-street, Snow-hill, printer;
Thomas Parke, Cheapside, shawl-manufacturer;
Donald Gibson, Gibraltar, merchant;
Mr Holland, War Office;
Mr Horzeizen, Foreign Office, surgeon;
Mr Hardy, Gibraltar, jeweller;
Proth and Santag, Gibraltar, taylors;
Mrs Clarke, Gibraltar, upholsterer;
Mr Batho, North-street, Red Lion-square, taylor;
Mrs Laver, Orange-street, Red Lion-square, tin manufacturer;
Mr Gathony, Lombard-street, watchmaker;
Mr Webb, Holborn-hill, linen-draper;
Messrs Brown & Co, Fleet-market, glassmen;
Messrs Smith and Pace, Shoreditch, spirit-merchants;
Mr Chalpont, Lower Smith-street, Southampton-square, butcher;
Mr Selby, Upper Charles-street, Southampton-square, attorney;
James Barclay, Esq. Kenton-street, Brunswick-square, Gentleman;
Mr Poole, Little Queen-street, Holborn, shoemaker;
Mr Williams, late of Eyre-street-hill, grocer;
Mr Smith, Eyre-street-hill, grocer;
Mr Starton, Newgate-street, cutler;
Mr Mills, Old-street, blind manufacturer;
Mr Warn, Lower Smith-street, Northampton-square, cheesemaker;
Mr Eustace, Lower Smith-street, Northampton-square, baker;
Beaumont and Wilson, Aldersgate-street, hatters;
William Gould, late of Ashby-street, Northampton-square, victualler;
William Martin, Old-street-road, smith;
Elizabeth Browne, late of Holborn-hill, milliner.

It seems that James was unable to afford the necessities of life, as most of the debt related to suppliers of everyday items of food and clothing and housing.

'James Martin, formerly of Gibraltar, and late of Northampton-square, Clerkenwell, in the county of Middlesex, surgeon' was still on a list of prisoners in the King's Bench prison in the County of Surrey on pages 2555-2631 of The London Gazette of 23 Dec 1813.

But James must have been released from prison, and was able to return to his vocation as a surgeon, working as Assistant Surgeon in the 1st West India Regiment and then the 5th Regiment of Foot, according to The London Gazette, London, England of 17 Jun 1817:
'5th Regiment of Foot, Assistant-Surgeon James Martin, from the 1st West India Regiment, to be assistant-Surgeon, vice Heathcote, deceased. Dated May 29, 1817.'

In 1825, still working as an Assistant Surgeon, he moved to the 9th Regiment of Foot. The London Gazette, 15 January 1825 advised:
'Assistant-Surgeon John Johnston, from half-pay 9th Foot, to be Assistant Surgeon, vice James Martin, who exchanges. Dated 6th January 1825.' 
Martin, James (I12366)

'Johanna de Rupe [Roche] a widow. Her first husband was Wm. le Hore of Ballyshelane, & she was dowered with 1 mess & 80 acres there from her first husband. After his death the lands reverted to Henry the brother & next heir of Wm. le Hore.'
Footnote after above text: A.
Source record A : The Memoranda Rolls of the Irish Exchequer, P.R.O.D.
Footnote to Ballyshellane: 'Ballyshelin, Taghmon. see p. 100 for epitome of Mem: Roll 21 Ric II.' 
de Rupe, Johanna (I7978)

Annie was born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne according to her marriage certificate, or Sunderland according to her death certificate and the birth certificate of her son Gerald which gave her age as 24 on 9 Jul 1861, indicating that she was born between Jul 1837 and Jul 1838. Her marriage in Feb 1857 at age 18 indicates a birth date Feb 1839-Feb 1840. Her burial record indicates that she was 61 when she died in Aug 1900 i.e. a birth date Aug 1839-Aug 1840.

By using these sources, plus the 1841 and 1851 census (see below), the most likely birth years are 1836 and 1837.

Annie's parents were Michael Lane and Maria nee McSweeney. Michael Lane was a civil engineer of some note. Annie was fluent in French and went to school in Belgium which may explain why she is not in the UK census in her father’s household or at school.

Annie's death certificate of 1900 states that she had been in Victoria for 45 years. That places her immigration at 1856. In 1855, there is an Ann Lane (single, aged 19) arriving in May into Melbourne on the Blue Jacket from Liverpool as an unassisted passenger. She was travelling alone, with no-one of the name Lane, McSweeney or Hanify on the passenger list.

No 1841 or 1851 UK census records have been found for an “Ann/Annie Marie/Mary Lane” born in Sunderland in the 1836-1839 date range. Nor has a birth record for 1839 been found. However, a Mary Lane born in 1836 in Sutherland, Durham is in the 1841 census in Sunderland.
The group of people in the residence (probably a boarding house) was:
George Warren 48 teacher;
Catherine Blakey 40 Independent (probably "of independent means");
Mary Lane 5; and
Jane Prudhoe 15 F.S. (probably a family servant).

It seems likely that a child would be listed immediately after the adult who cares for her, so Mary was probably in the care of Catherine Blakey.

In 1851 there is a Mary Ann Lane (born in Sunderland, Durham) at school in a convent age 15 in Bristol near Bath.

The importance of this census information is in determining the year of birth for Annie which seems to fit 1836, a year before formal civil records were kept in England and matches her age on some of the birth certificates of her children, and not 1839 which is used in many iterations of family trees.

The Ann Lane on the Blue Jacket matches the two census records for age. Her age on the birth certificate of her son Gerald Michael agrees. So the Blue Jacket passenger and the 2 census entries are most likely Annie. She is also the person that Bill Page-Hanify’s researcher had previously identified as the most likely match.

On 19 Sep 1861, Annie Hanify advertised for a general servant. The address given was Greenmount house, Octavia Street, St Kilda.

When Annie's husband Michael died in 1871, Annie was the sole beneficiary of the will. There is a Hanify family story that Annie taught piano after Michael's death. Ethel Mary and her daughters (at least) were proficient at the piano. The piano is still in the Page-Hanify family. Built about 1872/1873, it is a black Richard Lipp baby grand upright. It still has the brass candelabra. It used to be in the house of Cecil and Boronia Page-Hanify, and before that belonged to his parents Gerald and Kittie.

Annie lived with her daughter Ethel in Melbourne until her death and it seems likely that Annie's personal items were left with Ethel's family. 
Lane, Annie Maria Josepha (I1697)

Michael was born 29 Sept 1832 in Clifden, Connemara, County Galway, Ireland. He emigrated to Victoria, Australia on the barque El Dorado departing from Dundee on 23 January 1853 and arriving at Port Phillip Bay on 30 April 1853. He is listed as a passenger in the Galway newspaper the Galway Packet.

He held a variety of Government appointments between 1853 and 1859:
His first official appointment on 26 May 1853 was as a Clerk, Her Majesty's Customs. He was also appointed as a Coast Waiter and Searcher at the Belvoir Station, River Murray. He was promoted to Sub Collector 16 Nov 1854, the latter at an annual salary of £400 (according to Wikipedia, a Coast Waiter is a customhouse officer who superintends the landing or shipping of goods for the coast trade). At the 1854 appointment, he was also noted as a Clerk of Petty Sessions, Melbourne.
He was appointed Postmaster at Belvoir by the Postmaster General on 1 Jun 1856 at a nil annual salary.
He was appointed by the Governor as a Chinese Protector on 19 Jul 1858 at an annual salary of £250. He is also noted as being a Coast Waiter and Searcher at £500 per annum.
He was appointed Clerk of Petty Sessions, Melbourne by the Governor in Council on 9 May 1859 at an annual salary of £600. He resigned from position of Coast Waiter & Searcher May 1859.

Michael married Annie Maria Josepha Lane on 18 Feb 1857 at Beechworth. Beechworth is about 20 miles from Wodonga (original name Belvoir), it was a goldmining area and Michael would have been going there in his position as Protector of Chinese. Beechworth had a population of over 5000, so it is likely that Annie went there as a governess or music teacher. The best man at Michael John and Annie’s wedding was Robert O’Hara Burke. He was the local policeman in Beechworth and came from Galway but his claim to fame was his disastrous ‘Burke and Wills’ expedition attempting to cross Australia from south to north.

Michael and Annie had a family of six children, only Mary Kathleen (1859-1986) died young. By the mid-1860s the family was living in St Kilda, Melbourne.

In Feb 1863 Mr M. J. P. Hanify was on the list of contributors (including Hon. John O'Shanassy and Captain Sinnott) to the debts of St Patrick's Grammar School. He paid £5 5s. In Mar 1863 Mr Hanify was elected an honorary member of St Patrick's Society. Mr Hanify was on the Committee of Management for a Grand Bazaar to be held on 3 Feb 1864 in aid of the funds of the House of the Good Shepherd. Mr O'Shanassy was also on the committee, and Mrs O'Shanassy was to preside at a stall.

Michael was not forgotten in his homeland of Ireland. He was described as a worthy representative of "this once illustrious Milesian family (O'Hanify)" by N. Kilcogan in Dublin, 1864 when giving the ancient history of the family in Ireland.

Michael was the Clerk of Courts at Ararat 1868-1870, according to Bailliere's Postal Directory. The Gazette of 8 Jan 1869 appointed M. J. P. Hanify, clerk of courts, Ararat, to also be clerk of petty sessions at Landsborough. It appears that this period of employment preceded the report of the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly dated 1 Jun 1870 on his case, and that his position actually terminated in 1869.

On 25 Jan 1869 The Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser advised that a clerk of Petty Sessions named Hanify had been suspended for not executing a debt warrant against himself.
Papers regarding the dismissal of M. J. Page Hanify, clerk of courts at Ararat, were first laid upon the table of the House (the Legislative Assembly) on 18 Feb 1869. Mr Wilson noted that a large number of his constituents considered that Mr Hanify was entitled to have his case inquired into.

A report of the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly to inquire into the case of M. J. P. Hanify, due to be submitted to the House on 10 Apr 1870, was delayed because Parliament was adjourned. The Telegraph newspaper noted that the report was substantially in Mr Hanify's favour and recommended that his dismissal be cancelled, and that he be reinstated in the position from which he was previously displaced through the probable political actions of certain members of the then Government.

On 12 Jul 1870 the Legislative Assembly debated a resolution to the effect [ref The Argus 13 Jul 1870 page 7]:
On the item of £560 16s. 2d., retiring allowance to Mr. M. J. P. Hanify, late clerk of courts (who shall be deemed not to have been dismissed from the public service, but to have been permitted to resign his office, and upon the 8th February, 1869, to have resigned accordingly), in accordance with the reports of the Select Committee of the Legislative Assembly on his case, dated 1st June, 1870.

An amendment striking out the words in brackets was put, and passed by 18 votes to 15. The vote was then agreed to.

A newspaper obituary indicates the high regard in which Mr Hanify was held:

It is with sincere regret that we have to announce the death of Mr M.J.P. Hanify, so long connected with the public service of Victoria. He died on Tuesday at Ararat, after a lingering illness, attributable to a severe cold in the first instance; but which would have scarcely proved fatal but for the accompanying pressure of mental anxiety.
A native of Clifden County, Galway, we believe Mr Hanify arrived in the colony sixteen years ago, and was shortly afterward appointed Collector and Justice of the Peace at Belvoir. Having officiated there for several years he was transferred to Melbourne at his own request, and acted as Clerk of Petty Sessions for a considerable period. Subsequently removed to Ararat, an unfortunate misunderstanding brought him into collision with the head of his department.Suddenly, without anything like adequate notice or investigation, he was compelled to retire from the service. Serious was the pecuniary loss thus sustained, he felt the more keenly the undeserved imputation upon his character, and he never rested till he had vindicated his character himself to the complete satisfaction of a board of enquiry, in virtue of whose report he was allowed to retire honorably, the arrears of his salary being paid up.
In the meantime, however, care, suspense and worry had done their work, so that when attacked by a severe cold he fell too easy a victim. Mr Hanify was about 40 years of age. He had all the ardour, impulsiveness and generosity of the Celtic nature. So long as he possessed the means, no victim of misfortune appealed to him in vain, especially if hailing from the dear old country; and his exertions in raising the Donegal Relief Fund some years ago averted starvation from many an Irish home. Warm-hearted and well-meaning, his memory will long be cherished by his many friends.

Michael died on 7 Feb 1871 in Ararat, and his body was transported by rail to Melbourne. His burial service was held on the 9th and he was buried the following day. 
Hanify, Michael John Page (I1696)

The name "Synad" is used because it is uncertain if he had a surname. He was cited in Victorian times as 'Sir Richard' but without a real and known historical reference.

His descendants took a variety of names such as Sinod, Synath, Synagh, Synnot, Sinnot and Sennett. Aidan Synnott provided an analysis of the name origin in Sep 2015:
"The derivation of the surname Sinnott and such Sennett-variants, is not likely to be, but could possibly be, from the Teutonic or Old English given name Sigen?ð, from Sige, victory, and n?ð, bold. It is however most probably derived from a South Wales resident, of recent Fleming origin by the name of Synad or variant thereof [or a recent Norman migrant freeman by the name of Sinod, in its Latin translation], he being a risk-taking opportunist gang member attune with those prominent in his own Flemish ethnic ghetto, and they being collectively in alliance with the violent, rapacious and ambitious ruling Norman Knights of the Welsh Marshes and in South Wales as far west as Pembrokeshire, as at year 1169. The Lord of Pembroke was one Richard 'Strongbow FitzGilbert' deClare, son of Gilbert de Clare. He would lead + control the Norman conquest of Ireland, pre Henry II." 

Rev. F. X. Martin, in his article "The Normans: Arrival and Settlement (1169 - c. 1300)," in The Course of Irish History (1967), at page 127, provides some background about the invitation by Dermot MacMurrough which led to the 'invasion' of Ireland in 1169. Dermot had lost his kingdom in Ireland, and sought assistance from King Henry II, offering to acknowledge Henry as his 'sire and lord' in return. Henry accepted Dermot's offer, promised help as soon as possible, and provided an open letter in which Henry invited his subjects, Irish, Norman, Welsh and Scots, to rally to Dermot's assistance. Dermot sought an interview with one of the great Norman leaders in Wales, Richard FitzGilbert de Clare, the earl of Pembroke, better known as 'Strongbow'. Eventually he agreed to help, on condition that Dermot gave him his eldest daughter Aiofe in marriage, and the right of succession to the Kingdom of Leinster:
'Dermot then set off along the Welsh coast road to St David's securing along the way and on his return journey promises of help from a number of Welsh-Norman knights whose names were to become part of Irish history - FitzHenry, Carew FitzGerald, Barry. Before leaving Wales he also visited Rhos in Pembrokeshire. Here he got promises of support from the vigorous Flemish colony which had come from Flanders sixty years previously - their names were to figure prominently in the invasion of Ireland - Prendergast, Fleming, Roche, Cheevers, Synott.'

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913) page 3:
'There is little doubt the family of Synnott (spelt originally Synad, & Synagh, & in more recent times Sinote) are, as Burke states, of a French origin. The earliest record we have is that of Sir Richard, shown below, & in all probability his ancestor came over to England in the train of William the Conqueror in 1066, or shortly afterwards, with other French & Flemish Adventurers, and settled in Pembrokeshire, or the North West coast of Wales, as we know many of the latter did. From thence this Sir Richard joined the first expedition to Ireland with Robert Fitz Stephen in May 1169.'
'Circa 1172. Sir Richard de Synad. Built Ballyteigue Castle.[1]
[1] F. Vol 31, p61. The castle was in Kilmuckridge Parish, Ballaghkeen North. There are no ruins left.'
Source record F: M.S.S. of the late Herbert F. Hore

Burke's Irish Family Records
(1976) pages 1092-1096 (Hart-Synnot and Synnott) says at page 1093:
'The family may have come originally from France or Flanders, or from England, where the name "Sigenod" meant "Victory-bold". A Sir Richard de Synad is alleged to have crossed to Ireland with
Strongbow 1169 and built Ballyteigue Castle, in Kiimuckridge, E of Enniscorthy, co Wexford (not the present Castle of that name), In early 13th cent a grant was made of a property N of Wexford
Harbour, later known as Sinnotsland, to David Synad, son of Adam, by his kinsman Gerald de Rufe (Roche). His four sons, or grandsons (or possibly those of William, John, Henry, Redmond or Nicholas Synod) were,
1 DAVID, of whom presently.
2 Richard SYNAGH, m and had issue,
1 John, to,whom customs duties on wine, beer, fish and flesh meat in Wexford town were leased for £14 pa in 1331.
2 William.
3 John.
4 Michael, m and had issue,
1 David, accused of assault and theft in Wexford 1325.
2 John, summoned to attend hostings with horse and arms 1345... '

The family tree of the descendants of Synad is primarily based on
Burke's Irish Family Records (1976), pages 1092-1096 (Hart-Synnot and Synnott).
There is authoritative support from
P. H. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913, unpublished) which in most cases supports Burke (1976). Synnott Pedigree is understood to be based on the work of Nicholas Joseph Synnott of Furness, Naas, Co. Kildare, who commissioned the book.
The other major sources referred to were:
- Charles Nelson Sinnett Sinnett Genealogy - Michael Sinnett of Harpsville, Maine: His Ancestry and Descendants (The Rumford Press, Concord, N. H.
- Mary Elizabeth Sinnott Annals of the Sinnott, Rogers, Coffin, Corlies, Reeves, Bodine and Allied Families (private circulation, printed by J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1905).
- Sue Alderton Generational Chart of the “Synots” of Ireland (2012).

The general notes for descendants of Synad include any major deviations from Burke (1976) but do not necessarily indicate where more details (than Burke), or missing people, have been added. An analysis of the given sources for the general notes and fact notes may be needed to determine the origin of any extra detail.

Lt. Co. Hubert Gallway Some Early Norman Families in Co. Wexford in 'Journal of the Wexford Historical Society (No 4 1972-73) pp. 52-57 at pages 53, 54:
'About four summers ago when motoring in the southern part of Pembrokeshire, I stopped at the village of Dale, on Milford Haven, and spent a short time looking around. On the door of the parish church I saw a list of the ladies of the vestry committee. They included a Mrs. Codd and a Mrs. Roch (sic). This aroused my curiosity so that I spent fifteen minutes examining the headstones in the surrounding graveyard. In that time I found Roch, Codd, Devereux and Sinnott headstones. Other typical Wexford names could no doubt be found if a wider search in that district were made. In the first instalment we dealt with Roche (always spelt Roch in Wales) so we will now take the other three that I found.
[Paragraphs on Codd and Devereux are then followed by one on Synnott:]
This is an Anglo-Saxon patronymic like Codd, early forms being Sinnach, Synad, Synath, Shinnaghe.
Adam son of Sinath quitted claim of land in Annamult, Co. Kilkenny, to William Marshall for the Abbey of Duiske about 1204. He is the first of the Synnotts on record in Ireland.
Between 1226 and 1228 David son of Adam Sinad received a large grant in Fernegenel, Co. Wexford, from Gerald de Rupe or Roche. Fernegenel was henceforth divided into Roche's Land and Synnott's Land. The grant was a sub-infeudation, for the lands were held by the Synnotts of the Roches; in the 1247 feodary Gerald de Rupe is shown as the tenant of the whole.
Synnotts were also early holders of the quarter fee of Ballybrennan in Forth. William Synach is listed as the feoffee here in 1247 and John Synod in 1324. An inquisition of the reign of James I (1603-25) gives Richard Synnott as proprietor of Ballybrennan. Another branch of the Synnotts held Ballydusker, parish of Killinick, Forth, from 1324 or earlier and eventually acquired Ballyell which had belonged successively to Nots and Codds. They held these lands up to Cromwellian times.
In the opinion of Mr. K. W. Nicholls, Adam Sinad, or son of Sinad, was progenitor of the Synan family in Co. Cork as well as the Synnotts. The references to him in the records illustrate well the development of a mere distinguishing epithet, son of so-and-so, into a fixed patronymic to be used by the generations that followed.
So much for the names I saw in the churchyard at Dale. Their presence there proves that branches of the family settled at Co. Wexford stayed on in South Wales. at the beginning one man might hold land on both sides of the Channel but would probably leave them to different sons, founders of separate lines of the same name.' 
Synad (I7884)

Albert Philip Marie was born on 7 Jun 1870, the 12th and last child of William and Sarah Jane to be born alive. On two ship crew lists, Albert gives his place of birth as ‘At Sea’. The Victoria Births Index has a section for ‘Events as sea only’ which records many births, but Albert’s is not among them. However, he is the ‘Historical Events’ section, with the birth place given as Fitzroy, which is where the family lived. It seems that Albert had been misled about his birth place.

If in fact he was born at sea, the ship must have been close to Melbourne at the time, as Albert was baptised the following day, 8 June, at St Patrick’s Cathedral, Melbourne. The 2 sponsors were his uncle Albert Richardson (no doubt the source of the child’s name) and Mary C. Richardson. She may have been Mary Ellen Richardson, Sarah Jane’s half-sister.

The practice of giving a child a female name occurs in Christian families if it falls on a Marian feast day, but Albert’s birth date of 7 Jun 1870 is not one of the generally recognised Roman Catholic feasts. The date may have had religious significance for the family, or it may simply honour Albert’s other sponsor, Mary Richardson.

Family sources say that Albert Phillip was the favourite uncle of Estella Jane Hockin, who was born in 1881 in Melbourne - this places Albert in Australia about 1885-1900.


An “Alb. Sinnott” aged 29 was on the list of crew and passengers on the ship ‘Ortona’ from London, arriving at Sydney via Melbourne on 28 Apr 1900. It shows him as AB (able-bodied seaman) and as British. The crew list gives his name as Albert Sinnott, age 20, born at sea. His home address was “Sailors H. Well St’, meaning the Sailors Home at Well Street, London. According to the Illustrated London News of 29 May 1858:

‘SAILORS’ HOMES were first established in London. In the year 1835 one was opened in Well-street, close to the entrance of the London and St Katharine Docks. The Well-street Home is a large establishment, containing accommodation for 350 seamen, giving to each a comfortable, well-furnished, and well-aired cabin. The regulations under which the London Sailors’ Home is governed has been found to suit the taste and predilections of seamen so well, that they have been adopted at all other Homes, with slight modifications required by local and other circumstances. Homes for seamen are now becoming general, and, indeed, no port can be said to be complete without one.’

Albert signed on to the ‘Ortona’ on 10 Mar 1900 at Tilbury, and was required to be on board on 16 March. He was discharged at Sydney on 10 May 1900. His previous ship was the ‘Delphic’. The seaman listed next to Albert on the crew list, J. Michell, had the same address and previous ship.


In 1902, Albert Sinnott, was on the crew of the ship ‘Alcinous’. He gave his age as 31, place of birth ‘At Sea’, and home address Melbourne. He was still an AB (able-bodied seaman). He signed on to the Alcinous on 3 Feb 1902, and was to be on board on 3 Feb. His previous ship was ‘Isle [illegible]’
Albert Sinnott aged 29 was a crew member on the ship Ortona from London, arriving at Sydney via Melbourne on 28 Apr 1900. The crew list shows him as AB (able-bodied seaman) and as British. His monthly wage was £5, and he received an advance of £2-10s on engagement. Albert was discharged on 3 Apr 1902 at Liverpool, and was paid the balance of his wage owing, £6- 4s-6d.

Albert died in Bombay on 23 Jan 1912, and was buried the following day. At the time of his death, he was a third engineer on the “S.S. Nadri’ - possibly the ‘Naderi’, built in 1891 and owned by the Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Company (later renamed Mogul Line Ltd which was taken over by the Shipping Corporation of India in 1963).
There is a curious coincidence regarding the ‘Naderi’. When Albert’s brother John Joseph married Louisa Marian Stoddart in Calcutta in 1892, the witnesses were Jno McQueen and Francis Ruffin. The latter was possibly Francis John Raffin, Master Mariner and commander of the steamship ‘Naderi’, said to belong to the Port of Bombay. Perhaps there was a connection between Raffin and Albert Sinnott?
Dorothy Gunn, daughter of Maude Miriam (Sinnott) Page Hanify, said in 1980 that William Edmund had told her (Dorothy) that he was a sea captain and had 2 brothers who were also sea captains. One would be John Joseph - the only other one was Albert Philip. It now appears that Albert progressed only as far as third engineer.

Dorothy may have mis-remembered her conversation with her uncle William - after all, she was very young at the time, and quite old when recalling her uncle’s words. Dorothy was born in Wellington, NZ, in Apr 1904; William left New Zealand, not to return, in Jan 1916. 
Sinnott, Albert Philip Marie (I90)
10 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3997)

CEN1275 1851 England Census [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc, 2005.
Josh Richardson, 21, bookselling assistant with Richd and Rachel Brook (godparents of Albert Richardson 1839) - is Josh related to William R?

William’s origins are uncertain. He was in Huddersfield by the mid-1830s. The 1841 census gave his birth place as Yorkshire, the same as his wife Ellen and children Sarah and William. In the 1851 census, William’s birthplace was given as Durham in Durham.

William’s first wife – Ellen Hirst

William and Ellen married in Huddersfield at St Patricks Cathedral (Roman Catholic) on 20 Jul 1836, and at St Pauls Church (Church of England) the following day. He was 30 years of age and she was 20. Marriage notices in the Leeds Intelligencer and Leeds Times confirm that Ellen's father was Mark Hurst (sic) and note that William was shopman to Mr Bates, silversmith. This was probably Joshua Bates, silversmith and jeweller of Newstreet, Hudderfield who died in 1841.

Their first child Sarah Jane was born in 1837, and the second child William Albert in 1839.

By 1841 William was a clock and watch maker at 51 Westgate in Huddersfield. By 1845 he was at 16 Market Place, as a watch and clock maker, jeweller, silversmith and optician.

William and Ellen’s third child Ellen Hirst Richardson was born on 26 Mar 1845. Her mother Ellen died on 7 Apr 1845, and the infant died a short time later.

If there were any other children born to William and Ellen, i.e. between William Albert in 1839 and Ellen Hirst in 1845, it is clear that they did not survive infancy.

William’s second wife – Eliza Berry

William remarried in 1847. His second wife was Eliza Berry. They had three children in Huddersfield, Hilda Margaret, Mary Ellen and Theresa Clare, but Theresa Clare did not survive infancy.

By the census of 1851, William was a prosperous watchmaker/jeweller and the Richardson family was living in Market Place in Huddersfield. The 1851 census records two hands working for him in his shop and a young Irish girl as a servant.

In the early 1850s gold was discovered in Victoria, a colony located on the Eastern seaboard of Australia. Gold stimulated a flood of emigration. Gold may have been a personal inducement for William Richardson to come to Australia but the death of infant Theresa Clare may have been the push.

In June 1853 William and Eliza Richardson travelled on board the ship Ajax to Australia with Sarah Jane, Albert, Hilda, and Mary. They were unassisted - they were not travelling under any bounty scheme sponsored by the government so they must have had their own financial resources.

In 1854 there was a rebellion in the gold fields of Ballarat, in Victoria, over the cost of mining licenses imposed by the government. There was a “battle” between the government troopers and the miners who had built a temporary wooden fort to defend themselves, known as the Eureka Stockade. If William Richardson had planned to chance his luck on the gold fields, news of the bloodshed and difficulties experienced by the miners might well have discouraged him. In any event there was money to be made out of the swarms of prospectors heading to Victoria.

The 20 Jul 1853 edition of The Argus newspaper announced the opening of William’s shop at 34 Swanston Street in Melbourne, with William described as “a practical watchmaker” who would “repair watches and jewellery of every description with care and despatch.” William worked at Swanston Street while living with his family in Emerald Hill (now South Melbourne.)

On 4 November 1854 William's daughter Sarah Jane, aged 17, wed Captain William Sinnott, aged about 49. She identified her father’s occupation as watchmaker.

When Sarah Jane’s daughter, Maud Miriam Sinnott married in Sydney, Sarah Jane’s half-sister Mary Ellen Richardson appears to have been listed as a witness, indicating that contact continued between the two branches of the Richardson family.

Eliza had three children between 1856 and 1861, all died young.

On 28 June 1854 William Richardson, watchmaker and jeweller, 34 Swanston-Street advertised on behalf of AH for “A Capitalist” “to meet with a Brewer from London, of Ales, Single Porter and Stout, to start a Brewery, in consideration of being allowed a share of the profits for his services. Satisfactory testimonials can be produced from the first houses in London.” Eliza’s father’s had been a maltster, and his family had a long history in brewing, so perhaps this was an attempt to advance the family in Australia. It may also explain William’s ill-fated decision to get into the hotel business later.

More children were born to William and Eliza Richardson but sadly, none of them survived past childhood:
John Berry born 1856 died 1856;
Bernard born 1858 died 1861; and
Eliza Harriet born 1861 died 1862.

The Richardson family struggled financially in Melbourne. John Berry Richardson was buried in a pauper babies’ grave in 1856. Bernard was buried with the Sinnott family. It is not known where Eliza Harriet was buried.

The Argus of 12 June 1856 announced:
“Australian Club House and Boarding House North Melbourne – WM. Richardson desires to inform the public that he has become the proprietor of that house, so proverbial for its superior comforts. Each gentleman has a separate bed-room, a [thing] very rare in this colony.”
“W.R. would call attention to all who would wish the comforts of an English home at a moderate charge. It is convenient for diggers, being on the great outlet to the diggings.”
“Terms - £1 5s per week.”
“Good stabling for Twelve Horses.”
The previous year, the Australian Club House of North Melbourne advertised itself as having “Eighty well ventilated bedrooms” with its rates set at 35 shillings per week. Richardson increased the rates.
This house has an unusual history, being brought from England in a prefabricated state. It was nicknamed Noah’s Ark. It later became a school run by the Hair family and there was a description of its unusual design contained in an article written by J. Alex Allan entitled “Noah’s Ark and Mrs. Hare”:

The line of expansion of the town in the early decades was towards what was now North and West Melbourne, and a syndicate of business men saw in the prevailing house-hunger the chance for an original speculation. They secured the land at the corner of Courtney- Street and Blackwood-street, and erected thereon – it would seem in 1853 - a curious structure of wood and galvanized iron, made to their order in England, imported in sections, and put together on the spot. The building fronted Blackwood- street, the entrance being near the corner of Courtney- street. The caretaker’s quarters lay to the right of the doorway as one entered along the eastern end. The whole of the remaining floor space was occupied by a large communal dining-room, surrounded on the north, south and west sides by small sleeping-cubicles, each with its separate door. Spacious kitchens and store rooms, with great coppers for bulk cooking, lay at the back or west end, and communicated by doors with the dining-room, throughout which ran two long dining-tables running parallel to each other from end to end of the large saloon, with gaps at convenient places for the waiters to pass through. Round the walls, at the height of twelve feet, ran a balcony, off which opened a second tier of cubicles. Two gangway-like stairways – one at the south-east angle, near the entrance, and one at the north-west corner, gave access from the ground floor to the balcony. Each cubicle had its little window, and there were, therefore, two rows of these small square openings running round the outer walls. Small wonder that the local wits, discarding its dignified title of “The Australian Club House”, refused to call the quaint structure anything else but “Noah’s Ark.”

The Richardson family advertised their house in Emerald Hill for 5 pounds rental a week in 1856 and went to live on the premises. William Richardson, former watchmaker, was there from 1856 until 1862 and paid rates of 290 pounds in 1855 for a wood building as boarding house, saloon, 75 sleeping closets, kitchen and stables.
In 1861 William Richardson became the licensee of the Caledonian Hotel, located in Jeffcott Street west, in Melbourne, behind the Flagstaff which was the historic landmark of Flagstaff Hill (and gives its name to Flagstaff Railway Station in the underground railway system today).

The Argus of 12 Mar 1857 notified a sale by auction on 16 Mar 1857 of a leasehold property, known as the Australia Club and Boarding House, by order of the mortgagee. The property was subject to a lease to William Richardson commencing on 12 Jan 1857 for 2 years, at a rental of £501.

On 1 Aug 1859, the Age newspaper of Melbourne carried a notice dated 13 Jul 1859 requesting William Haig M.D, a member of the Municipal Council, to stand for the Legislative Assembly. Among the electors of the district of Emerald Hill who signed the notice were William Sinnott and William Richardson.

William Richardson was one of 14 signatories to a notice dated 1 Oct 1859 at Hotham, calling a public meeting, to be held on 19 October, for matters relating to the Municipal Council for the district of Hotham.

William Richardson was one of the 17 ratepayers of Hotham who were signatories to a notice dated 29 May 1860 calling on the Chairman of the Municipal Council to call a meeting to consider the expenditure of rates and the schedule of public works as passed by the Council.

A meeting was held on 28 Nov 1860 at the council chambers, Queensbury St, to elect 3 Town Councillors for the Municipality of Hotham. About 30 ratepayers voted by show of hands, votes received being Mr W. L. Campbell 28, Mr W. Richardson 25, Mr J. Barwise 24, Mr R. Reed 4. Mr Reed demanded a poll, which was set down for 8am-4pm on 29 November.

There are references in The Argus to Richardson’s Caledonian Hotel throughout the early 1860s. The Hotel advertised regular quadrille dances (ladies not charged for their attendance) at which the piano and violin were advertised as being played.
A description of the Caledonian Hotel up for sale in 1878 suggests it was “commodious and old- established hotel doing a steady business for upwards of 22 years.” So in 1856 it would have been newly built, in the outskirts of town. By 1878 the neighbourhood is described as an “improving neighbourhood” (which makes one really wonder what it was like twenty years earlier):
“The house is substantially built of bluestone and brick, with cemented front. It is situated near the intersection of Jeffcott and King Streets in a very improving neighbourhood.”

The quarterly licensing meeting for the City of Melbourne was held on 3 Sep 1861. Among the transfers granted was the Caledonian Hotel, Jeffcott Street, to William Richardson from James Cleghorn.

In 1861 and 1862 three year old Bernard and 18 month old Eliza Harriet died at the Caledonian Hotel. The family was particularly sensitive about Eliza Harriet’s death: her death notice spelt out that she died of “dysentery brought on by teething.”

Bernard Richardson was buried in the Sinnott family grave confirming Sarah Jane’s continuing influence within the Richardson family. Little Eliza Harriet’s final resting place is yet to be found. Melbourne General Cemetery is the most likely place but they were unable to find any record of her.

William the watchmaker turned publican became insolvent due to “depression in trade, sickness in family and pressure of creditors.” This is published in The Argus on 14 Feb 1866. He was then 60 years old. The Argus of 9 Jul 1866 announced that William Richardson had been discharged from insolvency in the Insolvency Court on 6 July.

Albert Vincent Richardson, (William Albert’s son), told his daughter Roma:
“Grandfather opened a feed and grain shop in Melbourne (of which he knew nothing) and promptly lost all his money and William Albert then had to keep two families.”

William Albert did not marry until 1870 so the reference to “two families” and a failed business might be out of synchronization. It is unclear how this business failure fits with the 1866 hotel-related insolvency.

In 1878 Eliza Richardson died from complications arising out of a strangulated hernia. She was 55 years old. In the probate documents, she was described as a wife (not a widow) but her husband William is stated to be living in East Melbourne - Eliza died at Napier Street, Emerald Hill. He might have been living with the Sinnotts in Powlett Street, East Melbourne. At the time of her death, Eliza Richardson owned two “run down” properties. Her estate was distributed between her two daughters, Hilda Margaret and Mary Ellen and her granddaughter Phoebe (Hilda Margaret’s daughter.)

Her husband William Richardson was not listed as the executor of her will, possibly suggesting either estrangement or lack of legal capacity – he would have been aged 72. The fact that the properties had been allowed to run down suggests estrangement. Eliza may not have had access to the handyman skills of William Albert’s father in law, James Mackereth.

William the watchmaker moved out of Melbourne at one stage but it is not known where he went. This might account for a family tradition that he arrived in Melbourne at a much later date - he might have come and gone and come back again. He may even have gone back with William Albert Richardson. Perhaps it coincided with Eliza Berry's inheritance. Or he may have been jailed for insolvency.

It is not known what happened to William following his discharge from bankruptcy, or when he died. Searches in Australia and England have been inconclusive. He is not buried with Eliza, who has a large and impressive headstone in Melbourne General Cemetery.

When his son William Albert took his family from Adelaide to England in 1883, the passenger list has Mr and Mrs W.A. Richardson and five children, plus a Mr W. Richardson. Perhaps this is William on a final trip “home”. 
Richardson, William (I75)

We very deeply regret to announce the death, on Friday morning, of the Very Rev Loughlin Canon Druhan, P.P Sutton’s Parish, at the venerable age of 78 years. Canon Druhan was in failing health of some years, and recently had been confined entirely to his residence. He was born in Cushinstown Parish, and was cousin of the celebrated Most Rev James Warren Doyle, Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin – the “great Dr Doyle” as was known the world over.
Father Druhan pursued his studies in St Peter’s College and in Maynooth, where he passed a brilliant course, and was ordained by the Most Rev Dr Murray, Archbishop of Dublin, at Pentecost, 1849. Father Druhan’s first curacy was Gorey, where he remained till transferred to Litter in 1858. He was then transferred to Taghmon in May, 1862, from which parish he was promoted to the pastoral charge of Tomacork in 1872. In 1879 he was promoted to the pastoral charge of Sutton’s Parish, and was raised to the dignity of Canon in 1884. Canon Druhan was a clergyman of great and varied learning, as were so many of the clergy of his period. He was an eloquent and impressive preacher, and his devotion and zeal in the discharge of his duties of his sacred office won for him the undying affection of his parishioners. In Gorey and in Taghmon, in which he spent many years, the warmest regard is cherished for the good soggarth.
In Tomacork, where he spent seven years as parish priest, canon Druhan did not spare himself to bring about many much needed reforms. Shillelagh Union boardroom always a seat of bigotry, engaged his attention for a long period. He was instrumental in having the first popular guardians elected to the board, and in providing Catholic nurses for the poor of the union hospital. This was no small achievement in the Shillelagh of a quarter of a century ago. Canon Druhan also had a vast deal of up-hill work to accomplish as regards the moral tone of the district. An essentially Orange stronghold, poor Catholic servants and others were victimized in alarmingly large numbers, when Canon Druhan took over the pastoral charge. Like the true priest that he was, he at once applied himself to the duty of protecting the then helpless victims of Orange brutality, and soon proved a very terror to evil-doers, upon whom he did not spare the most scathing denunciations. His memory …

[the last few lines at the end of the obituary are omitted – they are of no importance]
Druhan, Loughlin (I4683)
13 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1768)

Sarah Jane started school at St Marys Convent School (known as Bar Convent) in 1847.

St Mary’s School was run by the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a Catholic teaching order, commenced by Mary Ward who wanted her girls to be highly educated and independent thinkers. The order promoted a special devotion towards Mary. In Australia the order is still associated with teaching and in Melbourne is closely associated with Mandeville Hall and the Loreto order of nuns. School records for St Marys Convent School exist - they tell us that she started school in 1847, but not when she left. Sarah Jane’s old alma mater still exists at 17 Blossom Street, Micklegate and its alumnae are identified as “Bar Convent girls”.

In the census of 1851, Sarah Jane and her brother William Albert were not recorded as being with their father and step-mother in Huddersfield. Sarah Richardson of Huddersfield was at St Mary’s School. The whereabouts of William Albert on census night is not known.

Sarah was part of the Richardson family that emigrated to Victoria, Australia on the ship Ajax in 1853.

On 4 November 1854 Sarah Jane Richardson, aged 17, wed Captain William Sinnott, aged about 49. She identified her father’s occupation as watchmaker. This was a scandalous marriage as the groom had been married up until a short time previously. Six months mourning was regarded as the conventional time before a widow or widower could remarry: William and Sarah Jane married after about two months. There is no known reason for such haste.

The marriage took place in the Presbyterian Church in Geelong, some distance from Melbourne, with both parties attesting that they were members of that faith. They were Roman Catholic.

The absence of any member of the Richardson family from the ceremony suggests an elopement. The under-aged bride needed the consent of her father to marry before 21. Instead she lied and said she was 22 years old. She may have put up her age previously in order to find work as a governess. Employing a 22 year old would have been preferable to employing a 17 year old girl.

In The Argus of 6 November 1863 a Mrs. Sinnott of Hillside Cottage, Courtney Street, Hotham advertised for a servant who can milk a cow.

When Sarah Jane’s daughter Maude Miriam Sinnott married in Sydney, Maude's aunt Mary Ellen Richardson was a witness, indicating ongoing contact between the two branches of the Richardson and Sinnott families.

Both Sarah Jane Sinnott and Eliza Richardson appear to have been living in Emerald Hill in the late 1850s and it is likely that they would have supported each other through their pregnancies. Eliza had three children between 1856 and 1861, all died young. One of them, Bernard, was buried in the Sinnott family grave confirming Sarah Jane’s continuing influence within the Richardson family.

On 17 February 1855 a Madame King announced she would give a Grand Dress Ball in Emerald Hill, “tickets to be obtained at Mr. Richardson’s 34 Swanston-Street, Melbourne; and of Professor King, Dorcas street, Emerald Hill; also of Mrs Sinnott, Clarendon-street”. Obviously father and daughter were working co-operatively and one can assume that the young married mother enjoyed a good ball.

Sarah's brother William Albert travelled and studied overseas between 1863 and 1866, including London and Italy where he probably studied at the Milan Conservatory of Music. He may have been financed by Sarah Jane prevailing on her wealthy husband to sponsor her brother abroad. There is no doubt that she was extremely fond of her younger brother. Sarah Jane later witnessed her brother’s wedding and assisted at the birth of her niece, Edith Ellen Beatrice, in 1871. She named one of her children after him, but sadly he did not survive past infancy.

Poor Sarah Jane Sinnott had thirteen pregnancies in 17 years of married life. Her last child was a still born baby. Sarah Jane died on 23 Sep 1872. Her death entry reads: "[illegible] following operation for delivery of a still born child". The date of the funeral service was 23 September 1872 – mother and child were buried the same day in the Sinnott family grave at Melbourne General Cemetery.

There is only one known portrait of Sarah Jane - by J. Botterill, photographer, who had a studio at 19 Collins St East, Melbourne 1870-1874. This is the address on the back of the portrait, indicating that it was taken near the end of Sarah Jane's life. 
Richardson, Sarah Jane (I77)

Background to Julius Jensen Bak and his family

Julius Jensen-Bak was Danish. In Denmark, until about 1850-1870, most ordinary people used patronymics instead of surnames. Patronymics are made from the Christian names of a person’s father, followed by “sen” (= son) or “datter” (= daughter). Thus, Jens’ (citizen) son Julius would be Julius Jensen.
Patronymics were abolished by law in 1826. The authorities wanted people to use family surnames instead. However, the custom was continued by the Danish population and was dispensed with only slowly.

Julius Jensen-Bak and Christina Helene Pohlmann married in Maryborough, Queensland, Australia in 1888. The key moment in the history of the family was the 1899 death by drowning of their daughter Julia Augusta at 7 years of age, at the same time as her mother.

It appears that, following this tragedy, the children were farmed out to relatives in Queensland and N.S.W. This was a major family upheaval, the details of which have not been fully established.

James settled in far north Queensland, so prima facie evidence would say he was placed with a Queensland family. It appears that Christina Helena also stayed in Queensland. Anna, Maria and Nancy all married in Sydney.

Julius was known as “Jensen-Bak” and that appears to be his correct title. However, over the years the “Jensen” was usually presented as a second given name. This was certainly true with Australian Army records and other official records. However, Julius, his wife Christina and daughter Julia are all recorded as “Jensen” in the Maryborough burial register.

Julius Jensen-Bak (1857-1921):

According to family-based information held by John Goodwin, Julius was born in Denmark about 1860 in Fjellerad (Fjeldrad), Northern Jutland, Denmark or Tjellerach, Germany. Aalborg is the nearest large town to Fjellerad. It seems likely that the name of Tjellerach is a poor transcription of Fjellerad as no town named Tjellerach (either in Denmark or the old Prussian disputed Danish territories of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein) can be found. According to Wikipedia in Dec 2013, Fjellerad is a village in Himmerlandsbanken with 393 inhabitants (2013), 17 km south of Aalborg. The city is located in North Jutland and belongs to the municipality of Aalborg . Fjellerad is located in Gunderup parish.

The search for Julius' origins in Denmark is difficult, and has considerable risk of error. There is only one Julius Jensen born about 1857 (the year commonly used on the few relevant family trees on the internet) in the Aalborg area with parents fitting the broad description of a father with the surname of Jensen-Bak and a mother named "Anne Dorothea". This family was found on If this is the right family, Julius has 9 siblings, all with the surname Jensen except one whose full name is "Jensen Back". The father's surname varies - Jensen (5 times), Jensen Back (3) and Jensen Bach (2). The mother's surname is Paulsen except for the first born child (Jens Jensen in 1850) where she is name "Ane Dorthea Paulsdr", indicating that the patronymic system was still in use. To date, there is no corroborating evidence that this is the family where Julius Jensen-Bak belongs.

The supposed family of Jens and Ane Dorthea is:

Jens Jensen: born on 30 Apr 1850 in Denmark, baptised on 13 May 1850 at Gunderup in Aalborg, North Jutland, Denmark;
Maren Jensen: born on 12 Nov 1851 in Denmark, baptised on 26 Dec 1851 at Gunderup;
Mariane Jensen: born on 15 Mar 1853 in Denmark,baptised on 25 Apr 1853 at Gunderup;
Mariane Jensen: born on 7 May 1854 in Denmark, baptised on 10 Sep 1854 at Gunderup;
Julius Jensen-Bak: born on 4 Jun 1856 at Fjellerad, Gunderup;
Ane Caroline Jensen: born on 21 May 1858 in Denmark,baptised on 21 Nov 1858 at Gunderup;
Jensen Back: born on 12 Apr 1860 at Gunderup, baptised on 12 Apr 1860 at Gunderup;
Christian Jensen: born on 16 May 1861 in Denmark, baptised on 9 Jun 1861 at Gunderup;
Niels Peter Jensen: born on 26 Apr 1863 in Denmark, baptised on 30 Oct 1864 at Gunderup;
Nielsine Rasmine Jensen: born on 4 Feb 1865 in Denmark, baptised on 4 Feb 1866 at Gunderup.

On 10 Sep 1878, Julius arrived at Hervey Bay, Queensland aboard the ship Hershel. Grouped with Julius Jensen (age 21) on the passenger list were three other Jensens - Kristian Peter (19), Niels Ch (19) and Christine (25). None of these three match the names of Julius's supposed siblings, although Christina could be the same person as Mariane born in 1854 (to avoid confusion with the Mariane born in 1853) and there is just enough time for twins to have been born (but no baptism registered) in 1859. The 4 Jensens were all single, according to the Maryborough rations register 1875-1884.

A possible marriage for the Niels Ch [Christian] on the Herschel is to Jensine Marie Laurisen in 1882. Among the six children born to this couple, as recorded on the Queensland birth index, are daughters Pouline and Anna Dorthea. These could be named after Julius' mother Ana Dorthea Poulsen - perhaps she was Niels Christian's mother also?

A possible marriage for the Kristian/Christian Peter on the Herschel is to Elizabeth Collett in 1887.
None of their 12 children have names associated with Julius's family.

Nothing is known of Christina Jensen, except that she was named in the Maryborough rations register as a passenger on the Herschel in 1878, so she may have lived in Maryborough.

Ten years after arriving in Queensland, on 18 Feb 1888, Julius married Christina Pohlmann at the Lutheran Church in Maryborough, Queensland. Witnesses were William Bertram and Mary Pohlmann - possibly Christina's cousin, daughter of Jochim Pohlmann. From this marriage, six children were born between 1888 and 1897. He was working as a labourer when their daughter Maria Elisabeth was born in 1893.

At the Police Court, Maryborough on 25 May 1888, the Municipal Inspector sued Julius Jensen for driving without lights and for refusing to give his name when demanded by the Inspector. Julius was fined £1, with £1 1s professional costs and 3s 6d costs of the Court on the first first offence, and £2 with £1 1s professional costs and 3s 6d costs of the Court for the second offence. The fines were to be paid within 3 days, or in default levy and distress. The magistrate stated that he would deal very severely with anyone who came before him in future for refusing to give their names when demanded by the Municipal Inspector.

Julius placed a notice in the Maryborough Chronicle on 7 Jun 1895, advising that a social dance was to be held in the Scandinavian Hall on the same day. Refreshments would be available. Admission for gentlemen was 2s, ladies were to be admitted free.

At the Police Court, Maryborough Chronicle, on the morning of 31 Dec 1896, Christian Jensen summoned her husband Julius Jensen, a wood carter, to find sureties to keep the peace towards her, as he had declared and threatened to break every bone in her body. Christina stated her own case, Julius retained counsel. after the evidence on both sides had been heard, the case was dismissed.

On Friday 13 Aug 1897, Julius Jensen was summoned to the Maryborough Police Courtsummoned on a charge of wife and child desertion. A summons had been served on 10 Aug, and as he did not appear the Bench ordered that a warrant be issued for his arrest. He appeared at the Police Court later that day. His counsel satisfactorily explained his not appearing, after which an adjournment was granted until Saturday.
On the following day at the Police Court, the adjourned case of wife desertion preferred by Christina Jensen was called. Counsel for the defendant informed the Bench that the complainant had written a letter asking that the case be withdrawn. The Police Magistrate granted the request.

Maryborough Chronicle 23 Jun 1897 - case of wife desertion withdrawn

The Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser of 10 Oct 1899 listed subscriptions given in aid of the Maryborough Hospital on Hospital Saturday. At Brennan's Corner, Julius Jensen gave £5 15s. 6d.

Perhaps Julius had a premomition of disaster. For his wife Christina and their daughter Julia drowned on 17 Nov 1899 on the family property at Teebar Road, Marianna, resulting in the break up of the family soon after. It seems, on the death of his wife, Julius was unable to care for his children and the circumstances of his death in 1921 would indicate he had little on-going relationship with them.

Court hearings in May 1900 show a sorry tale of neglect and child abuse by Julius, which led to the break up of the family.

from the Maryborough Chronicle of Tues 15 May 1900:


Annie Jensen (aged 12), Christina Jensen (10), James Jensen (5), and Mary Jensen (8) were before the Court as neglected children.
Sergeant Clulow prosecuted, and the father of the children was present.

Acting-Sergeant J. P. O’Brien, deposed:
Know the children in Court; in consequence of a complaint accompanied Constable Costello to Jensen’s place at Marianna, on Sunday last; found three of the children at Pohlman’s place, over a mile away;
Christina said....”My father beat me yesterday morning, and struck me on the head with his fist, knocking me down; he also struck me across the back with a hoe, and my arm and back are sore where he struck me; father said the next time he would knock my head off”; she further said, “on several occasions previous to this he knocked me down and kicked me with his boots;” she said she did not want to go back as she was frightened her father would beat her again.
Annie complained of her father’s ill-treatment; she said that he stuffed a rag down her throat once and nearly choked her; she did not want to go back, being frightened that her father would beat her;
Mrs Pohlman, at whose house he found the children, said that on several occasions when the children came to her place and complained of their father having beaten them she undressed them and found black marks on their backs and shoulders; on Sunday she found black marks on the arms of Christina; Christina further said that the scratches on her face were done by her father who caught her by the hair of the head, scratched her face, and threw her on the ground; Annie told him that her father beat the baby about a month ago with a cane and left black marks all over it; before leaving Pohlman’s, Jensen arrived in a cart with the youngest child; took possession of all the children;
in explanation of the beating of his children Jensen said “I am not responsible at times; I know I beat them too severely sometimes”.
Conclude from his saying that, and from my general knowledge of him for the past three years that he is not altogether right in his head.
Went inside Jensen’s house; the clothing was poor, but it was clean; there were two beds in the house; there was only one old single blanket, and the rest of the clothing was old bags; there was not furniture in the house; the nearest place is three quarters of a mile off; Jensen has been in the Maryborough hospital; produce certificate from Dr Garde, which showed that Jensen was in the hospital in October, 1899, suffering from dementia, and was hardly in a fit condition at that time to have full charge of children; the mother of the children was dead, drowned on the 17th November last, with another child, in a waterhole at Marianna; there is no one else to look after the children but Jensen, and I don’t believe he is fit at time to look after them.

By the Bench: The children on several occasions have had to leave home and seek shelter elsewhere, owing to the violence of the father.

Jensen interjected that he had been too good to the children; a father could not have children without beating them; they would not do what he told them.

Sergeant Clulow asked for an adjournment of the case until Wednesday for further evidence, and in the meantime the police would see that the children were properly card for.

From the Maryborough Chronicle of Thu 17 May 1900:


The four neglected Jensen children were again before the Court.
Sergeant Clulow conducted the case, and the father of the children was in Court.
Further evidence was called as follows:-
Mary Pohlman deposed: Am a married woman, and live near Yengarie; know Jensen and his four children; about 11 o’clock last Sunday morning the two elder girls and a boy came to my place; Christina told me that her father had hammered her, and kicked her with his boots; examined her and found markes on her arm and back; her right cheek was slightly swollen and scratched; Annie told me that she was frightened her father might kill her; before this he beat the baby until she was black and blue; the children are frightened of him; don’t think he is a proper person to kook after the children as he cannot control his temper; wanted to take one of the children out of pity; other neighbours would do the same, only we are all afraid Jensen would bother us.

By the P.M.; The children are fairly well dressed, and they look healthy, people give the children clothes.
By Jensen; The children did not complain that you did not feel them.

Mary Louisa Ellis deposed: Reside with my husband in Albert Street; know Jensen and his children; before November last the children were at my house; they had hardly any clothes on them; clothed the four girls, one of whom is since dead; my husband has a selection alongside Jensen; a man named Adams looks after fit; he has not complained of Jensen ill-treating his children but often hears them screaming; knew the deceased Mrs Jensen; she frequently complained to me that the father would not buy the children clothes; she told me that he would not give her food.
The police called no further evidence.

The P.M. said he would not deal with the children that day, and would remand them for some days to enable him to communicate with the Home Secretary.
Sergeant Clulow thought it would be hardly safe to allow him to have the children back again, as he might have to be sent to the hospital at any time.

The P.M. said some course would have to be taken for the protection of the children. He then explained to the father that the children would be kept until the Home Secretary had been communicated with. He was going to see what could be done, as he was fully convinced in his own mind, from the reports of the police and from cases which occurred here last November, that the father was not treating the children rightly. He felt he should not be doing right in allowing the children to go back. They would be kept at the expense of the State until the Home Secretary decided what was to be done with them.

The case was then adjourned to allow the Home Secretary to be communicated with.

Maria may have gone to live with relatives in NSW, possibly her mother's sister Marie Elisabeth and her husband John Ramage Campbell. The other four children, Anna, Christina, James and Nancy, were admitted to the Diamantina Orphanage in Brisbane on 20 Jul 1900. It appears that they did not live there, but boarded with various families:
Anna - to Mrs Webb, later transferred to Mrs Affleck;
Christina - to Mrs Hargreaves (note that Christina later took the name Hargreaves);
James - to Mrs Pedersen; and
Nancy - to Mrs Pedersen, later transferred to Mrs Mickelson.

Marie Elisabeth is not with her siblings in the orphanage register, although she is one of the 4 "neglected children" in the court hearings - Nancy was not included in the court list. It is possible that Marie Elisabeth (Mary) left the family before the court hearings, even before the drowning. Her name in the "neglected children" list of 15 May 1900 could be an error - it is the only time she is referred to in any document, and her name should be third on the list, not last, based on her age. Perhaps the name "Nancy" was mis-read as "Mary", and the age adjusted to fit Mary.

Julius' occupation was given as shoemaker and farmer - perhaps he had been a shoemaker in Denmark.

The children were all discharged by the orphanage on 23 Jul 1903, the register does not say where they lived after that.

Their discharge may be related to a warrant for Julius's arrest for non-payment of maintenance of his children. The Queensland Police Gazette of 1903 at page 58 states:

ROMA STREET, BRISBANE: A warrant has been issued by the Brisbane Bench for the arrest of Julius Jensen Bak, charged with failing in an undertaking with the Secretary for Public Instruction, Brisbane, for the payment of 12s. per week for the maintenance of his children in the State Orphanage, being now indebted to the sum of £80. Offender is 50 years of age, 5 feet 7 or 8 inches high, sandy complexion, beard, and moustache; sullen appearance; a German, speaks broken English; a farmer. Supposed to be at Gosford, near Sydney, New South Wales. - O. 647. 2nd March, 1903.

As Federation in Australia commenced in 1901, extradition from NSW to Queensland would have been in it’s infancy and probably poorly administered. There is no obvious reason why a person from Maryborough would target Gosford as a destination. Although on the railway line, it seems an odd place to choose, especially if one is hiding from the law. Newcastle or Sydney would have been a safer refuge.

Perhaps Julius paid up, or perhaps he was imprisoned - he was on the 1905 Queensland electoral roll as a labourer living at Tooley Street in Maryborough. This is no guarantee, of course, that was actually there in 1905. On the 1908 roll he was still a labourer, but living at Woongool Road, Tinana. A Julius Jensen left Sydney on 12 Apr 1907 on the S.S. Sonoma, arriving at Honolulu on 30 Apr 1907. He arrived in San Francisco on 8 May 1907, travelling with his brother-in-law, a Mr Neilsen of Harlan, Iowa. There is also a curious listing of a Julius Jensen Bak arriving 10 Apr 1907 at San Francisco from Panama on the ship City of Para - this person was classed as an alien and refused entry. It is unclear if either of these people is the right Julius. But if the latter was Julius, perhaps the U.S. medical examiners discovered a problem that led to his exclusion - his treatment of his children some years before indicated mental health issues. The diagnosis of dementia for Julius was probably wrong - it is unlikely that he would have lived for so long afterwards. The symptoms are more consistent with a brain tumour.

By 1910, Julius was a farmer in Queensland. The Queensland Government Gazette of 17 May 1910 names Julius Jensen and describes a brand registered to him as "3 g 5", the certificate number as 50881, describes the run or farm where the brand is to be used as "care of H. Clayton, Gonara" and the nearest post town as Tinana.

Both the 1913 and 1919 electoral rolls describe Julius as a farmer living at Dunmora. Dunmora, Marianne and Teebar were originally large properties, west of Maryborough, taken up in the earliest days of Queensland Settlement. The names still apply, but the properties are much reduced in size.

His burial entry indicates that he was living at Teebar when he died.

His obituary in the Maryborough Chronicle of 29 Aug 1921 reads:

The police are advised on Saturday [27 Aug 1921] that the body of an elderly man, named Julius Jensen, a settler at Dunmora, had been discovered on a bed in his hut that morning. Investigations made later in the day revealed that Jensen, who was about 60 years of age, had been dead probably for a fortnight. The body which was much decomposed was removed to the morgue and a post-mortem showed the death was due to natural causes. The deceased’s wife and a daughter aged 7 [Julia Augusta] met their deaths in 1899 under tragic circumstances. The mother at the time was drawing water from Marianna Creek, Teebar Road, when the child fell into the creek and in an attempt to rescue her, both mother and child were drowned. Following this the children – one boy and three girls were adopted by various persons, are now grown up. Two reside in the district and it is believe (sic) the other two are in N.S.W.
The funeral will leave the morgue at 11 o’clock this morning for Maryborough Cemetery.

Julius died intestate. He was buried in Maryborough Cemetery (plot B640) on 29 Aug 1921, in a joint grave with his late wife Christina Helena and their daughter Julia.

A Statutory Notice to Creditors by the Official Solicitor to the Public Curator, Brisbane,dated 17 Oct 1921, appeared in the Maryborough Chronicle of 24 October 1921, page 7. It advised that creditors of Julius Jensen Bak, late of Dunmora, who died on or about 14 Aug 1921, should send their claims to the Public Curator, Brisbane on or before 20 Dec 1921. After that date, the Curator would distribute the assets of the deceased among the entitled parties, but having regard only to claims of which he had been notified.

There is an unusual postscript to Julius' death. His daughter Anna's 1912 marriage entry said that he was deceased. Anna's sister Christina was a witness to the wedding. When Julius' daughter Maria married at 17 years of age in 1911, consent was given by the Guardian of Minors. This implies that her father was dead. Julius’ death seems to be generally accepted by three daughters and, as Nancy Annette was the baby of the family, she too was probably of this belief.
Maria's brother James, on his WW1 enlistment on 17 Sep 1914, gave next of kin as J. Bak of Yungarie Qld.
If J. Bak is Julius, as seems likely, it would indicate James was aware his father was alive. If this is true, it would seem only the daughters thought he was dead. Prima facie evidence would suggest the Campbell’s were the ones that spread the lie, in order to protect Maria (and possibly her sisters) from being contacted by Julius. It seems that the legacy of Julius' neglect, and possibly abuse, was his estrangement from his daughters for more than the last decade of his life. 
Jensen, Julius (I6354)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) names Edward's brother Mark as "The only son", but this is clearly incorrect, according to the St Michan baptism register, which has 3 children - Anne, Mark and Eward - the latter baptised 25 Jul 1699. 'Eward' is taken to mean 'Edward'.
Synnott, Edward (I8913)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) and P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913) have no entry for this child of Marcus and Jane. Her name is taken to be Maria Marcia born 1819: most family trees have only one child, born either 1819 or 1821, with there being several name variants, and with either person married to Alexander Rowley Miller. As there appear to be 2 definite birth dates (3 Jan 1819 and 3 Mar 1821), it is likely that both children existed, but that Marcia (1819) died young and Marcia (1821) was given a same or similar name.
Apart from Maria Marcia, all the siblings are in the will of Mary (died 1869).
Maria Marcia (b. 1819) is not known to have married or to have had any children. 
Synnot, Maria Marcia (I8298)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) gives 10 Jan 1862 for the marriage of Mary Jane Cumberland Synnot and David Boswell Reid.
The marriage date should most likely be 10 Jun 1862, as in Henry Swanzy The Families of French of Belturbet and Nixon of Fermanagh (Alex Thom & Co Ltd, Dublin, 1908). The Australian Marriage Index reg. no. is 1863/1146, indicating a registration in early 1863. 
Synnot, Mary Jane Cumberland (I9104)
19 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I10707)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) has 3 children for Walter Synnott and Margaret Furlong - Marcus, James and Nicholas. There were 3 more children: William, Anistace and Catherine, noted in:
David Synnott From Ruination to Recovery: the Synnotts from 1649 to 1881 (Jan 2001).
The latter two are also in:
P. H. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913, unpublished).

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 18:
'Walter of Rosegarland = Margaret dau of James Furlong of Horetown, Esq.'
and of Ballyfarnock. seized in 1626. I Chap. 1 No. 14.'
Reference I: Chancery & Exchequer Inquisitions post mortem
There is a faint pencilled note by Nicholas Joseph Synnott or Pierce Nicholas Netterville Synnott '(Wm p79 83 84)'. This refers to notes on those pages about William Synnot of Rosegarland. But Hore did not include William as a child of Walter and Margaret. William is found only in David Synnott's book From Ruination to Recovery: The Synnotts from 1649 to 1881 ( January 2001), Chart: The Synnotts from 1649 to 1881.

Walter Synnot of Rosegarland was the eldest son.

The Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of  Chancery in Ireland, of the Reign of Charles the First, First to Eighth Year, Inclusive at pages 107-109 sets out the grant by Charles I to Walter Synnot on 3 May 1626 of the castle, town and lands of Rosgarland, and of the towns and lands Ballylanan, Killmurreston, Rospoyle, Clongeen, Loghnagire, Ballyclomackbegg, Kilbreny and Clonfadd, in the county of Wexford.

The grant recites the earlier grant by Queen Elizabeth to Walter's grandfather Richard and letters patent granted by Charles' father James I to Sir Oliver Lambert for the fee simple of Rosgarland. Walter's late father James had agreed to take Oliver's interest for valuable consideration, but James and Walter were concerned that there might be a defect in the letters patent as towns and lands were not named specifically. James I had agreed to grant letters patent for the premises to Walter, but this had not happened. Hence the grant by Charles I to Walter.

The grant is also set out on page 234:
"Grant to Walter Synnot of the castle, town and lands of Rosgarland, and of the lands of Ballylanan, Clongeen, Kilmoristowne, otherwise Kilmurristowne, Rospoile, Kilbreny, Clonfad, Loughnegir, Ballyclomackbeg and other lands in the county of Wexford ; to hold for ever, as of the castle of Dublin, in free and common socage, pursuant to his Majesty's letter, dated 3rd May, 1626 - August 5, 3. [i.e. 3 Aug 1627 - the 3rd year of Charles' reign]

Walter's estates were sequestered in 1641 (Report Record Com. XV. 155). Although records state that he married Margaret Furlong, and they had 5 children, he may also have married a daughter of Sir Richard Masterson, according to "Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland" vol VI (1856). 
Synnott, Walter (I8136)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) names Henrietta Thornton’s father as Richard. Henrietta’s father was Henry, not Richard. The County Families of the United Kingdom by Edward Walford (1889 and 1892 editions) refer to Henrietta as ‘5th dau. of the late Henry Thornton, Esq.’

Henry Thornton of Battersea Rise was a close friend (and also a relative) of William Wilberforce, the British anti-slavery crusader. They shared a house in Palace Yard, London until Wilberforce's marriage to Barbara Spooner. Henry was a Calvinist, a banker, philanthropist and Member of Parliament for Southwark. He bought Battersea Rise House in 1790. This was eventually to become the "headquarters" of the Clapham fellowship. Thornton gave away as much as six-sevenths of his income till he married, and after that at least a third of it. Probably his greatest personal efforts were expended in directing the affairs of the Sierra Leone Company, a Clapham-inspired enterprise to establish a colony of freed slaves in West Africa. He was Treasurer of the Church Missionary Society, MP for Southwark, 1782-1814 and, from 1784, partner of London banker, Down, Free and Thornton. 
Thornton, Henry M.P. (I8282)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) names her as Marcia Maria. Her name taken to be Mary Marcia:
P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 16:
'Mary Marcia d. August 1869.'
Further evidence of her name being Mary is:
National Archives of Ireland Calendar of Wills and Administrations, 1858-1922 (27 May 1875, page 701):
"The Will of Mary Synnot late of Ballymoyer County Armagh Spinster deceased who died 15 August 1869 at Lurganah in said County ... "

In the 1841 UK census, Mary (25), Maria (20) and Parker (15) Synnot were at Clapham, Surrey with their second cousins Susanna, Maria, Anne and Charlotte Synnot. The ages were probably rounded to the nearest 5 years as was commonly done in the 1841 census.

Her death was reported in the "Hobart Mercury", in Hobart, Tasmania, where she was noted as the eldest daughter of the late Marcus Synnot, Esq., J.P., of Ballymoyer, County Armagh, Ireland.

The Ulster Gazette of 27 Aug 1869 reported the funeral of Miss Synnot, who died at Lurgana House, and her interment in the family vault at Ballymoyer on 19 Aug after funeral. The funeral service was read by her brother-in-law Rev Mr Crawhall. Many family names are mentioned in the report.

Mary's will was proved at Armagh by Marcus Seton Synnot of Ballymoyer, her brother and executor of her will. But that was not the end of the matter.

According to the National Archives of Ireland Calendar of Wills and Administrations, 1858-1922 (27 May 1875, page 701):
"The Will of Mary Synnot late of Ballymoyer County Armagh Spinster deceased who died 15 August 1869 at Lurganah in said County (left unadministered by Marcus Synnot one of then Executors) was proved at the Principal Registry by the oath of Barbara Cecilia Crawhall (Wife of George Crawhall of Nunmunkton County York) Sister of deceased surviving executor. Former Grant District Registry Armagh 1869 folio 63.)"
The effects unadministered were under £5000.

The will

The will of Mary Synnot, as transcribed below, is a fascinating glimpse into a different era, the possessions and value placed on them by the higher echelons of society, and also provides clues to Synnot family relationships.
The disposition of personal assets is set out in detail, and the terms of endearment (or lack of them) also gives clues to relationships within the large family. Of note are some gifts to non-siblings. Miss Houston (presumably Margaret) is included, as is a Miss Ferguson. Margaret's mother was Mary Anne Ferguson, and Frances Trappes (nee Houston)'s 2nd husband was Joshua Ferguson. Mary's 'cousin Charlie', who received a brooch, was probably Charles Forbes Goodhart Synnot, son of Mary's cousin Robert Synnot M.D. Charles inherited Houston property in Co. Down.

This is the last Will and Testament of me Mary Synnot of Ballymoyer County Armagh, now residing at Lurgannah. Whereas I am possessed of a charge upon the Ballymoyer Estate of five thousand pounds, I wish to divide and bequeath same in the following manner and proportions. I leave and bequeath to my brother Marcus for his life, the sum of one thousand pounds and after his death, my will is, that the thousand pounds so bequeathed shall merge and sink into the Estate of Ballymoyer & cease to be further a charge thereon. To my sister Maria Eliza Miller I leave and bequeath the sum of one hundred pounds to be paid to her as soon as convenient to my Executors after my death. I leave to my Executors hereinafter named whom I constitute Trustees for this present bequest, the sum of one thousand pounds : the interest at the rate of four pounds per cent, per annum to be received by them, or either of them or by any other Trustees or Trustee hereinafter to be appointed by them should they or either of them be unable or unwilling to act, and to be applied in equal shares for the maintenance, education and advancement of my three God daughters, Cecilia Agnes Synnot, Mary Edith Crawford, and Georgiana Constance Synnot during their respective minorities, the principal not to vest in them during their minorities, but to vest and become payable in each case on their severally attaining the age of twenty one years. And I hereby authorise my Trustees or surviving Trustee, should they, or either of them, die or decline to act, then that they or the survivor may appoint a Trustee or Trustees to act instead, and the receipts of my Trustees or surviving Trustee or of such new Trustee or Trustees shall be sufficient discharge for all monies directed to be received under this Trust. To my sisters Barbara Cecilia, and Julia Hewitt, I leave and bequeath the sum of two thousand nine hundred pounds; the interest thereof to be received by them in equal proportions share and share alike. And in the event of the death of either of them, then my Will is that a sum of five hundred pounds, part of the two thousand nine hundred pounds should go to and form a part of the trust fund for my three God daughters hereinbefore mentioned - my intention being that if they should severally attain the age of twenty one years, each should have the full sum of five hundred pounds, subject to the life interest hereby given in the one part of five hundred pounds to my sisters Barbara and Julia, but in case any one of my three God-daughters should die under the age of twenty one years, then my will is that the five hundred pounds, hereby so bequeathed should go to and form part of my residuary Estate. And I further give and bequeath out of the said sum of two thousand nine hundred pounds after the death of either of my two sisters Barbara or Julia- to my brother William Forbes Synnot the sum of five hundred pounds. And to my sister in law Georgiana Thorpe Synnot the sum of five hundred pounds, for her separate use, to be free of any control by her husband, and her own receipt therefor to be a full and sufficient discharge both for half-yearly interest and for the principal whenever same may be paid off. And after the death of the survivor of my sisters Barbara and Julia, then my Will is, that of the fourteen hundred pounds remaining undisposed of the two thousand, nine hundred pounds and of which fourteen hundred pounds, such survivor is to have the interest for her life, my Brother Mark Seton shall take, and receive, one thousand pounds, and the remaining four hundred pounds I give and bequeath to my niece Jane Rosalie Synnot. Provided that as regards the sum of two thousand nine hundred pounds, both as respects the life Estates, and the bequests over of the principal money, so long as it is convenient to the owner of the Ballymoyer Estate, that the principal shall remain a charge thereon, the interest payable in respect thereof, shall be, and remain, at four pounds per cent per annum; and no part of the principal shall be raiseable, without the consent of such owner until the entire shall be divisible, as herein is contained. To my brother Parker George I leave and bequeath my shares in the Midland Great Western Railway. To my dear sister Julia Synnot I leave my Davenport also the Miniature of our Mother and the Ivory fan that belonged to her. To my dear sister Barbara Cecilia Synnot I leave the Miniature of our dear Father set in a Brooch and a Locket in red case containing his hair and initials. To my dear sister Agnes Jane Crawford I leave a Gold Brooch which encloses some of our Fathers hair. To my dear niece Mary Edith Crawford I leave some of my French Boots and my Album. To my dear Nephew Marcus Synnot Crawford I leave my Gold Watch and chain and Longfellow Poems. To my dear brother in law Francis Crawford I leave my copy of the Enclyclopedia Britanica [sic] and my Ivory set of Chessmen. To my dear Brother Mark Seton Synnot I leave my Aneroid and my best Photographic Album. I wish my dear Niece Mary Susanna Synnot to have the Bracelet I bought from Mme Sbiglio. To my dear sister Maria Eliza Miller I leave a Jet Brooch and Bracelets of mine, and one or two of my extracts Books. To my dear Brother Parker George Synnot I leave some of my books and drawings. To my dear sister in law Annie Synnot I leave a Camio Brooch of the Cenci which I lent to her many years since. To my dear sister in law Anne Jane Synnot I leave a Camio Brooch of St Agnes which she gave me, also a pair of Gold Earrings Pompean pattern which my dear Brother Marcus gave me. To my dear cousin Charlie Synnot I leave a painted Brooch of the Cenci which his Mother gave me. To my dear Cousin Susanna Maunsell I leave my copy of Hallams History of Literature of the Middle Ages which I gained as a prize for Essays written when a Member of the Ballymoyer Mutual Improvement Society. To my dear Cousin Maria Augusta Synnot Maunsell I leave my Schiller. To my dear niece Georgiana Constance Synnot I leave some Pearls that belonged to my dear Mother. And to Cecilia Agnes Synnot I leave some Coral and my fan. I wish some of my clothes to be given to my friends Miss Houston and Miss Ferguson. My dear little dog Ary I leave to the care of my sister Julia. I leave all the rest and residue of my property and effects whatsoever to my sisters Barbara and Julia share and share alike, and appointing my brother Marcus and my sister Barbara my Executor and Executrix, and also the first Trustees in and of this my Will, and revoking all previous Wills I declare this to be my last Will and Testament and affix my name in the presence of the two Witnesses whose names are subscribed, and who sign same in my presence, and in the presence of each other this 15 day of July one thousand eight hundred and sixty seven.

Signed and delivered by the said Mary Synnot )
as her last Will and Testament in the presence of ) Mary Synnot (seal)
us, who at the same time, in her presence, and in )
the presence of each other do affix our names as Witnesses )
John Newenham Hoare, Clerk in Holy Orders,
Shelburne Hotel, Dublin.
R. H. Inglis Synnot, of Clapham Common, London S, Civil Engineer

This Will proved on the 6th day of October 1869. See Probate Book Page 
Synnot, Mary Marcia (I8297)
23 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I9072)
24 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I10409)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) records no children for Catherine Sinnott and John Porch. They had at least 3 - Anne Elizabeth, Isabella, Winfield Scott: 1850 United States Federal Census [database on-line], Franklin, Gloucester, New Jersey - Porch, Arnot, Hartman. 
Synnott, Catherine Ann (I10622)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) says that Catherine was the eldest daughter of Robert Balentine, MD, LRCS, of London. However, Catherine's marriage entry gives her father as William Ballantine, Esquire, and a witness is Elizabeth Ballantine, possibly her mother. 
Ballantine, William (I8917)

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) says that Catherine was the eldest daughter of Robert Balentine, MD, LRCS, of London. However, Catherine's marriage entry gives her father as William Ballantine, Esquire, and a witness is Elizabeth Ballantine, possibly her mother. 
Ballantine, Catherine Augusta (I8915)

Chronicles of County Wexford, being a record of memorable incidents, disasters, social occurrences, and crimes, also, biographies of eminent persons, &c., &c., brought down to the year 1877 (compiled by George Griffiths, printed at the “Watchman” Office, Slaney Place, Enniscorthy):
'James Codde,of Clogh East, born in 1608, married Mary, daughter of William Talbot, Mayor of Wexford. In 1625, he was found seised of one Castle and 120 acres of land in Clogh East, and 60 acres in Churchtown, held by military service. He was a Captain in the Confederate army in 1643.'
'James Codde, of Clogh East, who was killed at Duncannon, left only one child, a daughter surviving him. On the Cromwellian Distribution of 1654, Clogh East fell to Captain Richard Waddy, who very prudently married the heiress of Clogh East, and with her received all the deeds and papers of the original owner. These documents were preserved with religious care, and the last owner, the late good and beloved John Waddy, M.D., LL.D. and J.P., was proud of being able to show legal rights to Clogh Eastcastle, of far older date than any other Cromwellian descended proprietor. He died, justly and deeply lamented, and without issue 15th January, 1875.'
It is likely that this second reference is to the same James Codde. 
Codd, James (I14621)
29 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I4)

General notes

Inglis (as he was known) was most likely named after Sir Robert Harry Inglis, Bart. Sir Robert was a cousin of the Thornton brothers - Robert Thornton was a colleague of his father in the East India Company’s direction. On the death of Henry Thornton (Inglis Synnot's grandfather) in 1815 Sir Robert and his wife became guardians of his nine children, including Inglis's mother Henrietta. Sir Robert and his wife moved into Thornton’s house at Battersea Rise, Clapham Common.

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 13 notes Robert Harry Inglis Synnot as marrying Mary dau of ... Preston.

On the "Historical Boys' Clothing" website at there is a biography of Robert Henry Inglis Synnot, apparently known as Inglis. As expected, there is some emphasis on clothing of the period.

Early life

E. M. Forster's book Marianne Thornton 1797-1887: A Domestic Biography (1956) relates Marianne Thornton’s relationships with various friends and family members, including particularly Inglis and Henrietta Synnot, whom she cared for after their mother (Marianne’s sister)’s early death. The lively Inglis and the sometimes-troublesome Henrietta were very different to the conservative Thorntons - perhaps in some small way a throwback to earlier generations of Synnots in Ireland?

In 1859 Inglis went to Canada with the intention of buying some land and staying permanently. He wrote his aunt Marianne Thornton a long letter describing his adventures visiting Niagara Falls. He stayed in Canada until at least 1865 because many of his letters to Marianne discuss the progress of the American Civil War. However, he eventually returned to England and married Mary Preston. It is believed that he settled down to an uneventful life. He apparently became a photographer.

But his profession was as a civil engineer - this is his occupation listed in the 1861 census.
An 1873 obituary by the Institution of Civil Engineers reads:
"MR. ROBERT HARRY INGLIS SYNNOT was born at Clapham in 1837, and was educated at Harrow, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. in 1860. In the same year, having a natural taste for engineering pursuits, he articled himself to Mr. Shelley, Assoc. Inst. C.E.
After the termination of his pupilage, in November, 1863, he continued for a short time to assist Mr. Thos. Ormiston, M. Inst. C.E., Resident Engineer on behalf of Messrs. Lee and Sons, the contractors for the Plymouth Breakwater, with whom the latter part of his time had been spent.
He subsequently became Resident Engineer on the Wrexham, Mold, and Connah's Quay railway, and, under Mr. T. C. Watson, M. Inst.C.E., assisted Messrs. Lee and Sons in carrying out the Amsterdam Sea Canal works.
At the commencement of the year 1872 the desire for more constant employment than the profession at that time afforded led him to embark in the timber trade; but he had scarcely done so when he was seized with an attack of rheumatic fever, which in less than three weeks proved fatal.
He died in London, on the 12th of April, 1872, having been an Associate of the Institution since February the 2nd, 1864."

There is also mention of an 1871 rail journey across America, from New York to San Francisco and return. This was the subject of an article published in the Contemporary Review 17 (1871: Apr) pages 428-442 by R. H. Inglis Synnot entitled"The Pacific Express".

He died at a relatively early age: his memorial inscription at St Mary's Church, Brighstone, Isle of Wight reads: "Robert Harry Inglis Synnot died 12 April 1872 age 34 years". His death notice in The Argus newspaper (Melbourne) noted that he was the only son of the late Richard Walter Synnot of Clapham Common, Esq and grandson of the late Sir Walter Synnot of Ballymoyle, Ireland.

His will was proved at the Central Registry on 13 Jun 1872 by his widow Mary Maria and his cousin Edward Morgan Llewellyn Forster, the executors.


Inglis was included as a beneficiary in the will of Lady Mary Inglis, which was proved 19 Dec 1872, but he had died earlier in 1872 
Synnot, Robert Harry Inglis (I8317)
31 accessed 28 Jul 2014:

George Synnot (1819-1871 ) was one of Victoria's pioneer settlers arriving in the Port Phillip District about 1837 and rising to become a prominent land owner and Geelong businessman.

George Synnot was son of Captain Walter Synnot,[1] a prominent Australian Colonial, one of numerous children. His Brother Monckton Synnot was also a well known squatter and wool brokers. His sister Jane married into the Manifold family.

George Synnot travelled to the Port Phillip District from ... and established the firm, George Synnot & Co., in 1854, taking Thomas Guthrie (1833-1928), into the partnership in 1857.[2] They operated hide and skin stores, wool and grain warehouses in Claire Street Geelong, and also engaged in trade. Synnot is credited with holding one of the first auction sales of wool in Geelong in November 1858.[3] Hawkes Bros. took over the business in 1882. In 1850, Synnot purchased over 18,000 acres under pre-emptive rights in the parishes of Bulban and Wurdi Yowang. With his brother Monkton Synnot, he managed the main station known as 'Station Peak', while the Mouyong property (also known as Mowyong Mayong, Moyong, Mouyong or Bareacres).[4]

Synnot bought the gabled Scottish manse style house 'Fernside' in Geelong at an auction in 1866.[5]

[1] "The Children of Walter Synnot Esq" Painting by Joseph Wright of Derby
[2] J. Ann Hone, 'Guthrie, Thomas (1833–1928)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, published in hardcopy 1972, accessed online 20 June 2014
[3] Mary Turner Shaw, 'Synnot, Monckton (1826–1879)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, published in hardcopy 1976, accessed online 20 June 2014
[4] Werribee - The area, its people and heritage. Bill Strong Flickr stream, 'Synnot family' Geelong Historical Records Collection
[5] Gordon Honeycombe thegreatwork accessed online 20/6/2014 
Synnot, George (I8311)
32 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I8953)
33 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I9208)
34 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2192)

The Gentleman’s Magazine, (Jan-Jun 1839) at page 592 says:
'In 1737 Mr Devereux returned to Ireland, where, shortly after, he married a celebrated beauty, his cousin Mary Esmonde ...'
James' mother Lucy was a daughter of Sir Laurence Esmonde, so Mary's father Mark Esmonde must have been a son of Sir Laurence.
The magazine describes the friendship between James and Lord Chesterfield, Lord Lieutenant, and the services rendered by James to his friend. 
Devereux, James (I11505)

The London Gazette, London of 21 August 1883 noted that, on 22 Aug 1883, Captain Mark Seton Synnot resigned his Commission in the 3rd Battalion, Princess Victoria's (Royal Irish Fusiliers). He was also a Captain in the Armagh Light Infantry, it appears that this was a different body from the Royal Irish Fusiliers.

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 15:
'Mark Seton late of Ballymoyer. Formerly Capt. Armagh Lt. Inft. b. 1847 d. unmd. 16 Aug 1901
On his death he was succeeded by his eldest sister Mary Susanna.'

A birth notice in the Liverpool Mercury of 5 Nov 1847 advises the birth of a son on 29 Oct at Merrion Square South, to the wife of Mark Seton Synnot of Abercrombie Square.

Mark Seton Synnot was Justice of the Peace of Ballymoyer and formerly a Captain of the Armagh Light Infantry.

The 1901 census records 'M. S. Sinnot' as one of a large group of people at 350 Morehampton Rd, Pembroke West, Dublin. It is clearly Mark Seton, as the given age is 53, he was Church of Ireland, born Co. Armagh, a "Capt of Malicia", and not married. The census return is on a form headed "Return of Lunatics and Idiots in Public Institutions and Private Lunatic Asylums". He was said to have suffered from delusional insanity for 12 years, and the presumed cause was alcoholism.

Mark Seton died on 16 Aug 1901 without heirs. He died at the Bloomfield Retreat, which is in Donnybrook, Dublin. This explains the location given in the 1901 census entry. The death record also notes that he was from 'Ballymoyler', Co Armagh and that the causes of death were heart disease (14 days) and syncope.

On 17 Feb 17, 1902, following the death of Mark Seton Synnot in 1901, the Synnott arms ("sine macula") were combined with the Hart family arms and the family name changed to Hart-Synnott of Ballymoyer. Mark's sister Mary Susanna had married Arthur Fitzroy Hart in 1868, and another sister Charlotte Augusta had married Reginald Hart in 1872. 
Synnot, Captain Mark Seton (I9052)

The London Gazette of 10 May 1864 advised Richard's appointment as a Cornet in the 1st Dragoon Guards, by purchase, replacing William Watt, who transferred to the 17th Lancers.

The same gazette of 4 May 1869 noted Richards appointment as Lieutenant in the 1st Dragoons, by purchase, replacing John Taylor Winnington who retired. and on 23 Jan 1874, the Gazette advised that Richard had been appointed Captain in the 1st Regiment of Dragoon Guards on 21 Jan 1874, replacing A. Mesham who had retired.

Richard gained the rank of Captain in the service of the 1st Royal Dragoons. He held the office of Justice of the Peace (J.P.) for County Kildare and also for County Clare. In 1890 he was High Sheriff of County Kildare. He lived at Oakly Park, County Kildare and at Blackwater, County Clare.

In the Gazette, London of 27 March 1877, the War Office announced the retirement from Service of Captain Richard Mark Synnot Maunsell of the 1st Dragoons, receiving the value of his Commission.

In addition to these responsibilities, Richard was also the Vice Chairman of the Celbridge Poor Law Union and a member of the Kildare Street Club. Being involved with what was the rudimentary beginnings of the modern welfare system was an important symbol of authority for this gentry class. The Kildare Street Club was the premier gentleman's club in Ireland. 
Maunsell, Richard Mark Synnot (I8289)

The London Gazette of 22 June 1869 advised that on 23 Jun 1869 Charles Synnot Johnstone, Gent, was appointed Cornet in the 7th Dragoon Guards, replacing Rees.

The same gazette, on 19 September 1871, noted that Charles was permitted to retire from the Service on 20 Sep 1871, by sale of his Commission.

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 16:
'Chas Synnot Johnstone of D.G's'
Died at Grove House Clapham 7 June 1838.
D.G's is taken to mean Dragoon Guards.
The death date and place are incorrect - they relate to Charles' grandfather Mark Synnot of Monasteroris House, Kings Co. 
Johnstone, Charles Synnot (I10431)

The London Gazette of 26 January 1886 advised that Charles Forbes Goodhart Synnot was subject to a Receiving Order under the Bankruptcy Act 1883, at the Pembrock Dock Court on 22 Jan 1886. The date of the public examination was set down for 3 Feb 1886 at 11:45am.

The Gazette of 29 January 1886 notified the first meeting on Charles' indebtedness under the Bankruptcy Act 1883 - it was was set down to be held at the Gate House Hotel, Tenby on 6 Feb 1886 at 12 noon. 
Synnot, Charles Forbes Goodheart (I9087)

The London Gazette, of 11 April 1902 recorded that on 17 Feb 1902 at Whitehall, London, Arthur FitzRoy Hart was granted, by the King, a Royal licence, with his wife Mary Susanna, to use the name 'Synnot' after 'Hart'. Arthur was authorised to bear the arms of Synnot quarterly with his own family arms, and the surname and arms could be taken, borne and used by the issue of their marriage. The arms were first to be duly exemplified according to the laws of arms and recorded in the college of Arms, otherwise the Royal licence and permission would be void and of no effect.

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 15:
'Mary Susanna = Maj. Genl. Arthur Fitzroy Hart, b. 4 May 1844 md. 22 Dec 1868.'
There is also a handwritten note by Nicholas Joseph Synnott or Pierce Nicholas Netterville Synnott: 'CB CMG' (referring to Maj. Gen. Hart).

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) gives Arthur’s date of death as 20 April 1910. He died on 29 April 1910:
Beatrice M. Hart-Synnot (ed), Letters of Major-General Fitzroy Hart-Synnot C.B., C.M.G. (Edward Arnold, London, 1912) at page 320 gives the date, and describes the circumstances of his death.

The Cheltenham Looker-On of 14 May 1910 has an obituary of Arthur Hart-Synnot, headed 'The Services'. It advises that he died in London after an operation. He was son of the late Lieut.-General Hart, and assumed the additional surname of Synnot by Royal Licence in 1902.

The Gloucestershire Echo of 14 Jun 1910 reported at page 3:
'General A. F. Hart-Synnot
The late Major-General Arthur Fitzroy Hart-Synnot, of Ballymoyer, Whitecross, Co. Armagh, an old Cheltonian, left estate in the United Kingdom valued at £81 5s 5d.' 
Hart-Synnot, Major-General Arthur Fitzroy C.B., C.M.G. (I9047)
41 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I1120)

The Reece and the Pee Families from Shropshire (Alison Honeyfield (compiler), 1997) notes:
'After Hilda's husband, Herbert Greenwood, left her and moved south, she and the children lived with Violet in two detached rooms at the back of the Maternity Home in Otahuhu. It is believed that Hilda did most of the housework, cooking and washing.'

There is a rather more graphic story that has been handed down in the family: Herbert abandoned Hilda and their four children Muriel, Daisy, Alfred and George in Auckland in the depression and ended up in Australia in a bigamous relationship. Hilda was left to fend for herself and would not have survived without the assistance of the Salvation Army. For some time Hilda lived with her sister, Violet, in two detached rooms at the back of the Maternity Home for Unmarried Mothers that Violet owned and operated in Otahuhu, Auckland. Hilda and Violet’s sister, Daisy established the home but, when Daisy married James Russell in 1923, Violet took it over. Heather says that Violet used Hilda as a ‘slave’ to do all the housework, cooking and washing, in return for food and board.

Hilda and her family lived near a Maori community in Otahuhu, Auckland. The community, realising how much Hilda was struggling financially, offered to adopt Daisy. 
Pee, Hilda (I12883)

The Reece and the Pee Families from Shropshire (Alison Honeyfield (compiler), 1997) notes: 'Blanche died at Opotiki after the birth of her third child and is buried in the Opotiki Cemetery. In his sorrow, William placed his three small children in an orphanage and enlisted in the New Zealand Army. On his return he remarried, but the youngest of his children had been adopted. In Opotiki, Blanche's family was known to her Reece relations.' 
Pee, Blanche Lilian (I14893)

This biography is, apart from the paragraph relating a family story, a report prepared by Alan Hall of Pirongia, and provided to Rex Sinnott by Jan Kilham on 22 June 2015.

Alfred Charles Bluck             1878-1915

Captain Alfred Charles Bluck (Service No. 13/281), the son of Alfred and Matilda Bluck, was born at Pukekohe on 20 December 1878, but lived a part of his childhood in Te Awamutu where his father was the stationmaster between 1881 and 1883. Later his family returned to Buckland, near Pukekohe, but in January 1901, when he married Ethel Harper of Pirongia, Charles, or Charlie as he was known in the family, was farming near Pirongia where he continued to live until at least 1911. By 1914, however, the Bluck family had moved to a property closer to Te Awamutu.

For a number of years, Charles Bluck was a territorial volunteer in the 4th Waikato Mounted Rifles. He was commissioned in 1906 and promoted to Captain in 1912. On 17 August 1914,he was appointed Captain of the 4th Waikato Squadron of the Auckland Mounted Rifles in the NZ Mounted Rifles Brigade.

After initial training in Auckland from mid-August, the Auckland Mounted Rifles embarked for overseas,with their horses, on 10 October 1914, travelling on HMNZT Star of India and HMNZT Waimana,to Wellington, where they joined a large New Zealand convoy transporting the main body of the NZEF that left Wellington for Egypt on 16 October. At Albany, Western Australia, the New Zealand ships joined an Australian flotilla and sailed together via the Suez Canal to Alexandria, Egypt, where they disembarked on 3 December.   

Intensive training and conditioning followed at Zeitoun near Cairo until the commencement of the Dardanelles campaign in late April.

The Mounted Rifles were held in reserve during the initial Gallipoli landings, but on 12 May they were landed as conventional infantry at Anzac Cove to relieve the British Naval Brigade on Walker’s Gully and Russell’s Top. It was there, late in the morning of 18 May 1915, that Captain Charles Bluck and Sergeant-Major Joseph Marr were both killed in action by sniper fire as they reconnoitred Walker’s Ridge. The two men were buried side-by-side. Captain Bluck was 36 years old.

There is a family story, so far unverified, about Charles' death. A daughter of Charles' sister Annie married Sid Wallingford, who was an officer in the NZ Air Force and flew Catalina flying boats and various other planes in WW2. Sid's father was a major in the NZ army in WW1 and also served at Gallipoli. Major Wallingford was apparently an excellent shot with a rifle. At Gallipoli, after Charlie Bluck was shot in the head and killed by a Turkish sniper, Major Wallingford in return located, shot and killed the sniper.

Lt. Col. C.E. Mackesy, Commander of the Auckland Squadron, later wrote to Ethel Bluck: “I had the highest opinion of his sturdy, honest character and admired Captain Bluck very much. He was a most conscientious, painstaking, keen officer. His loss to me was very great indeed. I had left him only 15 minutes before he was struck down. We buried him not far from where he fell, on the slopes of the hill overlooking the deep blue sea, with the island of Imbros for a background.”

Captain Alfred Charles Bluck is commemorated at the Walkers Ridge Cemetery, Anzac, Turkey.

His medals, the 1914-15 Star, British War Medal and Victory Medal, together with a scroll and memorial plaque, were forwarded to Ethel Bluck who raised their twin sons in Te Awamutu.

On 12 November 1916, a memorial service was held at St John’s Church, Te Awamutu, at which an altar cross was unveiled by Bishop Cowie in memory of Alfred Charles Bluck. The service followed a parade from the town hall and the packed congregation included soldiers who had been evacuated from Gallipoli.

13/281 Captain Alfred Charles Bluck
Auckland Mounted Rifles

Listed  in the Waipa Post List as:                            A.C.  Bluck
Bluck, Alfred Charles (I1940)

This biography was compiled from the MacDonald Dictionary of Canterbury Biographies, an obituary in The Press on Tuesday 16 Jun 16 1908 and an obituary in the Star on 16 June 1908 .

William Robert Mitchell was born in 1830 in England. He was christened at All Saints, London on 26 May 1833, the same day as his younger sister Mary. He left England when he was twenty-two years of age, and went to Australia, arriving in Melbourne in October 1852. For two years he tried his luck on the Victorian goldfields. He saw life there in its most picturesque days. He was present at the riots that took place when the Eureka Stockade was rushed by the miners, and he saw the burning of Bentley’s Hotel.

When Cobb & Co was established, in 1855, Mr Mitchell found that an entirely new career had been opened up to him. He was one of the first members of the firm’s staff, being appointed agent at Mary Borough, Ararat and Pleasant Creek in Victoria. When the great rush to Ararat took place in 1857, he was appointed manager of the firm for that district, and was for several years engaged in putting on lines of coaches to the various goldfields.
He took up residence in the small but rising township. He was elected chairman of the municipality, and was appointed a justice of the peace. In 1861 he was elected chairman of the Ararat Road Board, the first Board established under the Victorian Road Board Act of 1861. He took an active interest in the work of fire brigades, and, having organised the fire brigade in the district, was elected the first president.

In 1862 he left Victoria and came to New Zealand with Mr Lee Cole. He took horses and coaching plant for Cobb and Co to Dunedin. In 1862 he was appointed manager of that firm in New Zealand, whose head office was in Dunedin. After arranging several routes – north, south, east and west – before roads were made or accommodation houses provided, he visited Canterbury. He found the mail services were being worked in the slow-going manner of those times, when a journey to Timaru took three days, to Oamaru five, and the scarcely ever attempted through journey to Dunedin occupied seven days.

Determined to extend the operations of his firm to Canterbury, upon his return to Otago he reported so favourably upon the prospects that shortly afterwards, in 1865, when the Coles started Cobb & Co in Canterbury, he became manager. He retained that position, occupying an office on the site where the Grain Agency Company’s Buildings now stand, until he purchased the business, in connection with Mr Burton, in 1859. He was at one a partner with Mr A. G. Howland in the American Carriage Factory, and took part in the affairs of other businesses in Christchurch, notably the Kaiapoi Woollen Company and Whitcombe and Tombs, being a director of both those concerns.

After Lee Cole left for America, Cobb & Co’s West coast mail contract was taken over by William Mitchell and W.H. Burton in February 1870. William drove a buggy and pair over the Christchurch/Akaroa Road in January 1871. This was a trial trip preliminary to Mitchell and Burton starting the Christchurch Akaroa coach service. The first coach was driven by Burton over the route in February 1872. The road along Lake Forsythe was still very bad. At a dinner given on the road the Superintendent (Rolleston) and R.H. Rhodes were present and Mitchell in a speech said he was probably the only man present who had helped Cobb to lay out coaching routes in Australia. Cassidy and Clarke took over the West Coast service in 1873. The goodwill included the Cass Hotel and the changing places for horses.

From almost the first day that he set foot in Christchurch, William associated himself with the city’s affairs. He was an officer of the Christchurch Fire Brigade in July 1868. He was one of the original promoters who established the Fire Police and he took a very keen interest in it. He held the position of Captain for some time and was appointed as a fire inspector.

As an organiser of demonstrations & processions, William was always to the fore, and in conjunction with Superintendent Harris and Mr R. C. Bishop, he acted on numerous public occasions as Marshal.
In the cause of charity and benevolence, he gave freely of his time and money. Whenever any organisation was started for charitable or benevolent purposes, William was sure to be called on to fill the office of honorary secretary or honorary treasurer, and upon him in those capacities devolved the lion’s share of the work. He was one of the Committee who organised the welcome to the Duke of Edinburgh in 1869.

He was a very active member of various committees which had for their object the entertainment of the public. One of these was the Popular Amusements Assoc, which organised sports in Latimer Square July 71. He was musical and took part in the musical life of Christchurch. He was one of the judges of vocal solos at a concert, the other two being J. B. Stansell and Richard Packer, both traders of music in Christchurch.

William was elected to the East Christchurch School Committee October 1874. He left for a trip to England in May 1876 and was given a reception and a presentation. He resigned his post of Fire Inspector and M.E. Alport succeeded him. It is possible that he met his sister Emma Pheney and her children in England and persuaded them to return to New Zealand.

He returned in January 1877 and he and W.W. Wood, also a passenger were quarantined in Auckland because of a suspected smallpox case. He was welcomed back by the Fire Police.

He was secretary and a performing member of the Orchestral Society, under the baton of Colonel Lean, treasurer of the Benevolent Association until Charitable Aid Boards were established, secretary to the first International Exhibition in New Zealand, held in Christchurch in 1882 - he was the official agent of New Zealand, and its success was due in a large degree to his energy.

He was treasurer to the Canterbury A & P Association in 1890, auditor of the Canterbury Jubilee Exhibition in 1900, and treasurer of the Queensland, Wairarapa Disaster, and Hawkes Bay Relief Funds. He was also treasurer of the Jubilee Home Fund, and a member of the committee of the Rhodes Convalescent Home.

As a Freemason, Mr Mitchell was a long-time member of the Lodge St. Augustine, and for a number of years he acted as District Grand Secretary of the District Grand Lodge of Canterbury, and was District Grand Treasurer until 1900.

In later years William lived a retired life, his health not permitting him to take part in any public affairs.

William passed away at his house at Avondale, Christchurch on 15 June 1908. His wife died about 12 years earlier and they left no children. Frances Pople Pheney (William's eldest niece) was the executor of his will. He bequested 250 pounds to Frances' sister Emma, 250 pounds to Robert Francis Vaughan Pheney, the rest to Frances Pople Pheney. An affidavit by Frances Pheney indicates the estate was worth less than 10,000 pounds. 
Mitchell, William Robert (I1701)
46 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I11134)
47 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3251)

ANNE QUALTROUGH (1849-1908) - quiet and kindly lady

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
LEAST of all is known about ANNE the third daughter. She remained single and following the death of her parents, when she would have been about 32, she moved into the city to be with her sister Emily, a professional nurse.

They shared a small house in Cobden Street, Newton, then a residential part of Auckland, along Karangahape Road West. Nieces recall that “Aunt Annie” was similar in looks and disposition to the younger, lovable Emily and was very kind to them when they came from the country to visit their aunts.

Emily and Annie didn’t have much to come and go on but Annie would set the table beautifully for afternoon tea, even if it were only a simple one of bread and butter, recalled one niece, the late Mrs Elsie Smith, who was Tom Qualtrough’s second daughter. The kind-hearted Annie would sprinkle sugar on the children’s bread and butter to make it more palatable to young taste buds.

Annie had a skin problem of some sort and never went out in public without wearing a hat fitted with a short veil. Perhaps self-consciousness heightened a natural reserve, and possibly she was not robust for she died in 1908 at the early age of 59. She too, is interred at Pakuranga in the family plot. [(See Genealogical Chart 4).] 
Qualtrough, Anne (I496)

CATHERINE QUALTROUGH (1844-1872) – the girl they left behind

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
OF ALL the Qualtrough children CATHERINE is the one who captures the imagination most. The second daughter, she was only 15 when her parents made their momentous decision to emigrate to the other side of the world.

She lived with her aunt and uncle, Jane and John Hudgeon, at Ballakillowey. Just why, as previously commented upon, we are not sure, but it is certain that family ties were strong as the poignancy of the following letter shows. It was written by Catherine to her parents on January 21, 1860.

My Dear Father and Dear Mother,

We received the welcome news of your safe arrival (in N.Z.) 10 of January (i.e. nearly three months later) and I think you can better imagine than I can describe the feelings of our minds after half a year of fear and great anxiety. I received your paper and Aunt Betty the letter the same day. The sight of the paper brought tears into our eyes and joy into our hearts. We were delighted to hear of your good health and spirits and hope this letter will find you in the same it leaves us all at present, except that we are cast down often when we think of the distance between us, but we hope it all will be for the best. I suppose if you give encouragement to us we will be out in New Zealand yet.

It has been a very dry summer and a very stormy winter this last year. When you write I hope you will tell us all particulars. Ned Gale has shifted to Baldwin and Johnny to Strandhall as Gawne has let most of the land. The .......... is gone but .......... is in yet. William Walker is in part and Johnny Gale in the rest of the place.

Many enquiries has been made for you and many good wishes and many prayers been sent unto the Throne of God on your behalf.

We hope you will not forget us as you are always in our thoughts both asleep and awake. Aunt Jane was very uneasy about you as she was often dreaming about you. When we will receive your next letter we will write you. Do not forget to remember me often to the little ones. Tell them I will never forget them. Remember us all to James and Willie. Tell Betsy to write. I hope Richard and Anne and Thomas will be going to work or else to school. Let me know when you write whether Sarah and Emily is ever speaking of me.

When I will write again I will tell you all the news as my paper is nearly filled. With my kind love to my dear brothers and sisters, I remain, my dear parents, your affectionate and dutiful daughter,


In 1868 at the age of 24 Catherine married James Kinley. She had three children – Jane, John James and Thomas – then, tragically, died in 1873 aged 29.

Her daughter married John Harrison and produced four daughters; John James Kinley married and had two sons; Thomas Kinley drowned in 1896 while still a bachelor.

Catherine is buried in the Rushen churchyard, Isle of Man.

Poor little Catherine, reaching out in her imagination thousands of miles across oceans to her loved ones, never saw them again after their departure from the Isle of Man.

But her letter to them came alive touchingly when it was read aloud at our Family Reunion by her great-great-granddaughter, Violet Corlett, of Douglas, Isle of Man, in her soft Manx accent that turned back the pages of history to a spellbound audience. [(See Genealogical Chart 6).] 
Qualtrough, Catherine (I493)

ELIZABETH JANE QUALTROUGH (1838-1918) - battleground their farm

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
The eldest daughter, ELIZABETH JANE, more commonly called BETSY, was named after two of her father’s sisters. She was a buxom young woman of 20 when she accompanied her parents to the new land.

She appears to have been a practical, efficient sort of girl, ‘right hand’ to a busy mother both on the Isle of Man and as a pioneering newcomer in a strange land.

She married in 1866 (around 27 years of age) WILLIAM ANDREW COWAN, a widower, son of Irish landowners in County Down, who had emigrated to New Zealand in 1863.

Bill Cowan had immediately been caught up in the defence service for war clouds were amassing on the horizon of South Auckland, a preliminary to the Waikato outbreak. All able-bodied males between 16 and 55 years of age were called up to train. He was stationed at redoubts in the Wairoa ranges between Auckland and the upper boundaries of the Waikato District. These would have included Howick and East Tamaki.

More than likely Bill Cowan would have met Betsy at church functions or socials to entertain the militia.

Following their marriage Bill and Betsy Cowan took up land in the Waikato, previously a grant to an officer of the Waikato militia, Captain T. C. Speedy, and sold to them. Part of the farm lay across the site of the famous Battle of Orakau.

(A granite monument erected in 1914 marks the site of the battle although only slight outlines of the trenches are now evident. An Historic Places plaque indicates the Maori and Imperial troop positions at a point where the Kihikihi-Arapuni road cuts through the pa site).

The young Cowans settled down to farming and bringing up their large family, in the first years living under threat of Maori retribution for confiscated lands. Bill Cowan was second in command of the Te Awamutu troop of cavalry under Major William Jackson of Forest Rangers fame. The cavalry patrolled the frontiers of the King Country frequently, protecting settlers from marauding Kingites. Many Maori still bitterly resented the inroads the pakehas were making into the King Country.

Betsy produced eight children – a daughter, Elizabeth Mary, who died in infancy and seven sons. The boys were James, William, Robert, John, Henry, Charles and Walter.

James Cowan inherited his grandfather’s penmanship, and his close association with the Maori in his boyhood gave him a deep understanding of, and respect for Maori Culture. He became an authority on Maori matters and a writer of considerable distinction firstly as a journalist with THE AUCKLAND STAR then as a New Zealand Government Historian and author of international repute. He was mad a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

James was married twice. His first wife was Eunice Nicholas, a part-Niue Islander, who died in 1909. His second wife was Eileen Stowell, a part- Maori, daughter of Henry Matthew Stowell, a native interpretor known also as Hare Hongi. Eileen Cowell died in 1968.

William, who made a name for himself as a horticulturalist, particularly with roses and chrysanthemums, did not marry and lived in Auckland most of his life. Robert, a civil servant (Railways), married Mabel Coldicutt, of Auckland; John (Jack) entered the New Zealand Police Force and for many years was resident constable at Pukekohe and featured in a number of headline-making trials. He married a Dunedin girl, Helen Brown.

Henry, a bachelor all his life, inherited the family farm which he later sold and replaced with another in the Waikato. On retiring from the land he lived in Auckland. Charles died as a young man; Walter married Annie Elizabeth Gilmour and for a number of years worked in the timber industry in Auckland.

In one of his books, SETTLERS AND PIONEERS, James Cowan writes of his early boyhood thus:

“The farm lay with a gentle tilt to the north. Wheat was much grown and gave large yields. Memory lingers on the many peach groves and cherry groves, Maori planted, laden with the largest and sweetest fruit ever grown.”

(The Rev. John Morgan, ‘civiliser’ of the Upper Waikato in the period 1842-1861, had introduced British horticulture to his native flock and the region was exceptionally self-sufficient and prosperous.)

“.... The farm life was comfortable and happy, however primitive in some ways. Peaches fattened the pigs; even the horses and cattle munched those peaches. We had everything we needed; to the youthful mind that knew no other life it was endless comfort. I came to know later how short cash often was and how settler and storekeeper often had to resort to the barter system in which no money passed.

“Later on I carried to the township (Kihikihi) every Saturday on the saddle in front of me a box of home-churned butter. We got fourpence a pound for it, not in cash, but took it out in groceries.

“.... We were happy at home; those evenings were never monotonous. We had books at any rate. I don’t know how modern youth would survive a revival of those movie-less, radio-less, jazz-less evenings (J.C.’s words in 1940; add T.V., fast cars and fast foods to that!) the only sound from the outside dark the wailing call of the weka in the swamp and the bittern’s occasional muffled boom.

“.... candles were made by the farmer’s wife from tallow; I remember the tin moulds used. Smelly candles they were, but better than nothing, especially when kerosene was hard to get.

“The flax-bush was all-important. No farmer could have done without it, for a score of purposes. The down or pollen of the raupo flowerhead was a substitute for feathers or kapok in filling cushions.

“Harness was made in the early farming days from green cowhide cured with salt and alum. Plough and bridle reins and stirrup leathers were manufactured in that way. Floor mats and carpets were made by Maori neighbours and on these were laid dressed and dyed sheepskins.

“.... The housewife made much use of the abundant fruit. The big honey peaches were cut in slices which were strung with darning needle and thread on string and hung out in the wind and sun to dry; then they were laid out on boards or on sheets of corrugated iron, thoroughly dried in the hot summer sun and finally hung up in festoons in the rafters of the kitchen for future use in pies.

“There was no factory-cured bacon in the pioneer days, for there were no factories. We dealt with our pigs on the farm and we had a hand in every stage from sty to kitchen.”

Betsy’s days would be full, being a good farm wife and mother. James Cowan recalls that his mother was a very reserved person but kind.

She would have known the infamous warrior Te Kooti for, fighting days past, he was respected and even honoured. James Cowan writes:

“Te Kooti was our neighbour in 1884-85. He had a Government allotment, a gift from a grateful, or relieved, country; it was in Kihikihi township and he had a camp for awhile on Andrew Kay’s farm just where the Orakau defenders made their desperate, forlorn attempt to escape.

“He was a man of middle size with grey hair and sparse grey beard. His features were finely cut, his strong nose aquiline, his expression determined, dogged. He was not tattooed, his frame was spare, his shoulders slightly stooped. One of his hands was mangled by a Government bullet in the 1869 campaign.

“The war-worn veteran and spiritual medicine-man (he practised faith healing) often passed through Kihikihi township attended by his faithful cavalcade. In his later years he rode in a buggy with his two wives, stern, resolute looking women who composed his body-guard against revengeful attack by some old enemy. Reputedly each carried a loaded revolver in her blouse”.

Life was not all work. One of the highlights of the year was the Kihikihi racemeeting. In 1886 Te Kooti entered a horse, a grey gelding named Panirau (‘many orphans’) for the Cup. No-one remembers now whether he won or lost.

The Cowans left the Waikato in 1893 to settle in Auckland, living first in Lower Grafton Road and later in Devonport. Bill Cowan died in 1913 aged 73, Betsy died in 1918 aged 80. Both are buried at O’Neills Point Cemetery, Devonport.

Nieces of Betsy – sometimes referred to rather stiffly as “Aunt Cowan” – remember her in her older age as a formal person of upright character and bearing, not given to flippancy or fripperies in dress or demeanour. [(See Genealogical Chart 4.)] 
Qualtrough, Elizabeth Jane (I490)

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