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151

ANNE QUALTROUGH (1849-1908) - quiet and kindly lady

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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LEAST of all is known about ANNE the third daughter. She remained single and following the death of her parents, when she would have been about 32, she moved into the city to be with her sister Emily, a professional nurse.

They shared a small house in Cobden Street, Newton, then a residential part of Auckland, along Karangahape Road West. Nieces recall that “Aunt Annie” was similar in looks and disposition to the younger, lovable Emily and was very kind to them when they came from the country to visit their aunts.

Emily and Annie didn’t have much to come and go on but Annie would set the table beautifully for afternoon tea, even if it were only a simple one of bread and butter, recalled one niece, the late Mrs Elsie Smith, who was Tom Qualtrough’s second daughter. The kind-hearted Annie would sprinkle sugar on the children’s bread and butter to make it more palatable to young taste buds.

Annie had a skin problem of some sort and never went out in public without wearing a hat fitted with a short veil. Perhaps self-consciousness heightened a natural reserve, and possibly she was not robust for she died in 1908 at the early age of 59. She too, is interred at Pakuranga in the family plot. [(See Genealogical Chart 4).] 
Qualtrough, Anne (I496)
 
152

CATHERINE QUALTROUGH (1844-1872) – the girl they left behind

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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OF ALL the Qualtrough children CATHERINE is the one who captures the imagination most. The second daughter, she was only 15 when her parents made their momentous decision to emigrate to the other side of the world.

She lived with her aunt and uncle, Jane and John Hudgeon, at Ballakillowey. Just why, as previously commented upon, we are not sure, but it is certain that family ties were strong as the poignancy of the following letter shows. It was written by Catherine to her parents on January 21, 1860.

My Dear Father and Dear Mother,

We received the welcome news of your safe arrival (in N.Z.) 10 of January (i.e. nearly three months later) and I think you can better imagine than I can describe the feelings of our minds after half a year of fear and great anxiety. I received your paper and Aunt Betty the letter the same day. The sight of the paper brought tears into our eyes and joy into our hearts. We were delighted to hear of your good health and spirits and hope this letter will find you in the same it leaves us all at present, except that we are cast down often when we think of the distance between us, but we hope it all will be for the best. I suppose if you give encouragement to us we will be out in New Zealand yet.

It has been a very dry summer and a very stormy winter this last year. When you write I hope you will tell us all particulars. Ned Gale has shifted to Baldwin and Johnny to Strandhall as Gawne has let most of the land. The .......... is gone but .......... is in yet. William Walker is in part and Johnny Gale in the rest of the place.

Many enquiries has been made for you and many good wishes and many prayers been sent unto the Throne of God on your behalf.

We hope you will not forget us as you are always in our thoughts both asleep and awake. Aunt Jane was very uneasy about you as she was often dreaming about you. When we will receive your next letter we will write you. Do not forget to remember me often to the little ones. Tell them I will never forget them. Remember us all to James and Willie. Tell Betsy to write. I hope Richard and Anne and Thomas will be going to work or else to school. Let me know when you write whether Sarah and Emily is ever speaking of me.

When I will write again I will tell you all the news as my paper is nearly filled. With my kind love to my dear brothers and sisters, I remain, my dear parents, your affectionate and dutiful daughter,

Catherine

In 1868 at the age of 24 Catherine married James Kinley. She had three children – Jane, John James and Thomas – then, tragically, died in 1873 aged 29.

Her daughter married John Harrison and produced four daughters; John James Kinley married and had two sons; Thomas Kinley drowned in 1896 while still a bachelor.

Catherine is buried in the Rushen churchyard, Isle of Man.

Poor little Catherine, reaching out in her imagination thousands of miles across oceans to her loved ones, never saw them again after their departure from the Isle of Man.

But her letter to them came alive touchingly when it was read aloud at our Family Reunion by her great-great-granddaughter, Violet Corlett, of Douglas, Isle of Man, in her soft Manx accent that turned back the pages of history to a spellbound audience. [(See Genealogical Chart 6).] 
Qualtrough, Catherine (I493)
 
153

ELIZABETH JANE QUALTROUGH (1838-1918) - battleground their farm

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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The eldest daughter, ELIZABETH JANE, more commonly called BETSY, was named after two of her father’s sisters. She was a buxom young woman of 20 when she accompanied her parents to the new land.

She appears to have been a practical, efficient sort of girl, ‘right hand’ to a busy mother both on the Isle of Man and as a pioneering newcomer in a strange land.

She married in 1866 (around 27 years of age) WILLIAM ANDREW COWAN, a widower, son of Irish landowners in County Down, who had emigrated to New Zealand in 1863.

Bill Cowan had immediately been caught up in the defence service for war clouds were amassing on the horizon of South Auckland, a preliminary to the Waikato outbreak. All able-bodied males between 16 and 55 years of age were called up to train. He was stationed at redoubts in the Wairoa ranges between Auckland and the upper boundaries of the Waikato District. These would have included Howick and East Tamaki.

More than likely Bill Cowan would have met Betsy at church functions or socials to entertain the militia.

Following their marriage Bill and Betsy Cowan took up land in the Waikato, previously a grant to an officer of the Waikato militia, Captain T. C. Speedy, and sold to them. Part of the farm lay across the site of the famous Battle of Orakau.

(A granite monument erected in 1914 marks the site of the battle although only slight outlines of the trenches are now evident. An Historic Places plaque indicates the Maori and Imperial troop positions at a point where the Kihikihi-Arapuni road cuts through the pa site).

The young Cowans settled down to farming and bringing up their large family, in the first years living under threat of Maori retribution for confiscated lands. Bill Cowan was second in command of the Te Awamutu troop of cavalry under Major William Jackson of Forest Rangers fame. The cavalry patrolled the frontiers of the King Country frequently, protecting settlers from marauding Kingites. Many Maori still bitterly resented the inroads the pakehas were making into the King Country.

Betsy produced eight children – a daughter, Elizabeth Mary, who died in infancy and seven sons. The boys were James, William, Robert, John, Henry, Charles and Walter.

James Cowan inherited his grandfather’s penmanship, and his close association with the Maori in his boyhood gave him a deep understanding of, and respect for Maori Culture. He became an authority on Maori matters and a writer of considerable distinction firstly as a journalist with THE AUCKLAND STAR then as a New Zealand Government Historian and author of international repute. He was mad a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

James was married twice. His first wife was Eunice Nicholas, a part-Niue Islander, who died in 1909. His second wife was Eileen Stowell, a part- Maori, daughter of Henry Matthew Stowell, a native interpretor known also as Hare Hongi. Eileen Cowell died in 1968.

William, who made a name for himself as a horticulturalist, particularly with roses and chrysanthemums, did not marry and lived in Auckland most of his life. Robert, a civil servant (Railways), married Mabel Coldicutt, of Auckland; John (Jack) entered the New Zealand Police Force and for many years was resident constable at Pukekohe and featured in a number of headline-making trials. He married a Dunedin girl, Helen Brown.

Henry, a bachelor all his life, inherited the family farm which he later sold and replaced with another in the Waikato. On retiring from the land he lived in Auckland. Charles died as a young man; Walter married Annie Elizabeth Gilmour and for a number of years worked in the timber industry in Auckland.

In one of his books, SETTLERS AND PIONEERS, James Cowan writes of his early boyhood thus:

“The farm lay with a gentle tilt to the north. Wheat was much grown and gave large yields. Memory lingers on the many peach groves and cherry groves, Maori planted, laden with the largest and sweetest fruit ever grown.”

(The Rev. John Morgan, ‘civiliser’ of the Upper Waikato in the period 1842-1861, had introduced British horticulture to his native flock and the region was exceptionally self-sufficient and prosperous.)

“.... The farm life was comfortable and happy, however primitive in some ways. Peaches fattened the pigs; even the horses and cattle munched those peaches. We had everything we needed; to the youthful mind that knew no other life it was endless comfort. I came to know later how short cash often was and how settler and storekeeper often had to resort to the barter system in which no money passed.

“Later on I carried to the township (Kihikihi) every Saturday on the saddle in front of me a box of home-churned butter. We got fourpence a pound for it, not in cash, but took it out in groceries.

“.... We were happy at home; those evenings were never monotonous. We had books at any rate. I don’t know how modern youth would survive a revival of those movie-less, radio-less, jazz-less evenings (J.C.’s words in 1940; add T.V., fast cars and fast foods to that!) the only sound from the outside dark the wailing call of the weka in the swamp and the bittern’s occasional muffled boom.

“.... candles were made by the farmer’s wife from tallow; I remember the tin moulds used. Smelly candles they were, but better than nothing, especially when kerosene was hard to get.

“The flax-bush was all-important. No farmer could have done without it, for a score of purposes. The down or pollen of the raupo flowerhead was a substitute for feathers or kapok in filling cushions.

“Harness was made in the early farming days from green cowhide cured with salt and alum. Plough and bridle reins and stirrup leathers were manufactured in that way. Floor mats and carpets were made by Maori neighbours and on these were laid dressed and dyed sheepskins.

“.... The housewife made much use of the abundant fruit. The big honey peaches were cut in slices which were strung with darning needle and thread on string and hung out in the wind and sun to dry; then they were laid out on boards or on sheets of corrugated iron, thoroughly dried in the hot summer sun and finally hung up in festoons in the rafters of the kitchen for future use in pies.

“There was no factory-cured bacon in the pioneer days, for there were no factories. We dealt with our pigs on the farm and we had a hand in every stage from sty to kitchen.”

Betsy’s days would be full, being a good farm wife and mother. James Cowan recalls that his mother was a very reserved person but kind.

She would have known the infamous warrior Te Kooti for, fighting days past, he was respected and even honoured. James Cowan writes:

“Te Kooti was our neighbour in 1884-85. He had a Government allotment, a gift from a grateful, or relieved, country; it was in Kihikihi township and he had a camp for awhile on Andrew Kay’s farm just where the Orakau defenders made their desperate, forlorn attempt to escape.

“He was a man of middle size with grey hair and sparse grey beard. His features were finely cut, his strong nose aquiline, his expression determined, dogged. He was not tattooed, his frame was spare, his shoulders slightly stooped. One of his hands was mangled by a Government bullet in the 1869 campaign.

“The war-worn veteran and spiritual medicine-man (he practised faith healing) often passed through Kihikihi township attended by his faithful cavalcade. In his later years he rode in a buggy with his two wives, stern, resolute looking women who composed his body-guard against revengeful attack by some old enemy. Reputedly each carried a loaded revolver in her blouse”.

Life was not all work. One of the highlights of the year was the Kihikihi racemeeting. In 1886 Te Kooti entered a horse, a grey gelding named Panirau (‘many orphans’) for the Cup. No-one remembers now whether he won or lost.

The Cowans left the Waikato in 1893 to settle in Auckland, living first in Lower Grafton Road and later in Devonport. Bill Cowan died in 1913 aged 73, Betsy died in 1918 aged 80. Both are buried at O’Neills Point Cemetery, Devonport.

Nieces of Betsy – sometimes referred to rather stiffly as “Aunt Cowan” – remember her in her older age as a formal person of upright character and bearing, not given to flippancy or fripperies in dress or demeanour. [(See Genealogical Chart 4.)] 
Qualtrough, Elizabeth Jane (I490)
 
154

EMILY QUALTROUGH (1855-1941) – professional nurse.

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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EMILY, the youngest Qualtrough child, also remained single but we know more about her because she lived to the age of 86 and was a very family-conscious person who kept in touch with kith and kin.

She learned nursing skills and, following the death of her parents, went out on private cases, looking after patients in their own homes. She moved about the countryside attending cases as far apart as Hamilton, Thames and Auckland. Her patients included some notable people of the day for not only was she regarded as a good nurse but as a very special sort of person.

Fair-complexioned and blue-eyed, she was gentle and smiling, devoted to her church. “Saintly” and “angelic” are words often used to describe her nature and she abhorred vulgarity.

A great-niece, Mary Gavin, recalls that it distressed Aunt Emily to hear people swear. Why, she would ask, could they not give vent to their feelings just as easily and far less coarsely with, “Oh, scissors! Oh, needles! Oh, pins!”
As well as a good nurse she was a good cook, though it was said that when Emily baked there would be a trail of flour from one end of the house to the other.

After retiring from nursing Emily gave much of her time to church work and took an interest in the Auckland Manx Society. She was living with her nieces Evie and Bell Haddock in Pratt Street, Ponsonby and to those of us who can remember her in those later years, she was the epitome of the ‘little old lady passing by’ of a song popular at the time, dressed formally in gloves and with a hatpin holding a modest black straw hat on her silver head and smelling faintly of lavender water. She would clasp teenage relations to her bosom and murmur, “Dear child!”

Ever family-conscious, it was a sorrow to her that the Qualtrough name would die out with the demise of her brother Thomas’ only son, Jim. Of her brothers, only Willie and Tom had produced families, and Willy’s brood of eight were all girls, Tom’s five other children daughters.

Jim Qualtrough had married in 1927, but nearly 14 years later he was still childless. Then came the news that a baby was on the way. Aunt Emily’s delight could hardly be contained with the news, “It’s a boy!”

Emily asked Jim and his wife Minnie a special favour – could the baby be christened in the family church at Pakuranga? Arrangements were duly made and baby Malcolm James Qualtrough was welcomed into the Methodist Church on Sunday 12 October 1941.

But his little Great-Aunt Emily was not there to savour the moment. She had been ailing for some months and perhaps the excitement of it all had been too much for her for she collapsed and died on the Saturday night prior to the christening. The family carried on with her wishes, however, as all arrangements had been made. It was a poignant hour though for relations who had attended the christening to see Emily’s coffin resting on the spot beneath the altar where the longed-for male descendant had been baptised only the day before.

Emily was interred in the graveyard beside the church she had loved all her life. She had, in 1929, set up a Trust of £100 (sterling) for the upkeep of the property as it had at that time, through disuse, become neglected. The interest on this money was used for the purpose until the building was officially handed over to the Howick Historical Society. [(See Genealogical Chart 4)] 
Qualtrough, Emily (I499)
 
155

JAMES QUALTROUGH (1808 – 1881)

BACKGROUND TO EMIGRATION FROM ISLE OF MAN TO NEW ZEALAND

This background is based on chapter 2 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

The name Qualtrough, like many Manx names that begin with a Q, is of Celtic-Norse origin, and derives from the McWhaltrough clan of Kentraugh, an important estate of early times. The land was given, tradition has it, to the first McWhaltrough (or Mac Whaltroughe) in Mannin Beg (Isle of Man) who was said to be a half-brother of one of the Norse kings.

The Kentraugh estate in its heyday comprised twelve farms, three mills and a large house and a number of smaller farmhouses and outdwellings. Ancient Manx records show Kentraugh Mill was working as far back as 1506, owned by a Robert Qualtrough (McWhaltragh).

A great stone wall ran along the foreshore and is still in existence. Some say this wall was built as an effective shelter against the wild storms of the Irish Sea, others that it was a bastion of defence against invaders; yet others that the powerful southside family of Qualtroughs built the wall as cover for their private and possibly dubious activities – smuggling of whisky and rum-making, maybe. The gates to the driveway of the house were operated mechanically, shutting out intruders.

The Qualtrough name was recorded as far back as 1430 with a William and a Jenkin Mac Qualtroughe being named as Members of the House of Keys (Manx Parliament). In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries some of the family were Deemsters – the lawmakers in various districts of the island who were judge-and-jury in settling disputes and punishing wrongdoers. And there is a ballad telling of the jaunty deeds of one, Captain Harry Qualtrough, a privateer on the side of the British in the Napoleonic Wars – the “Tiger Privateer” it is called.

Fame and fortune wax and wane. Certainly the Qualtroughs tumbled from their pinnacle. Information taken from Mona Douglas’s book, They lived in Ellan Vannin, tells how one of the hereditary owners of Kentraugh lost the ancient seat through the application of a harsh Manx law in the early 19th century.

He had mortgaged the property for £300 (sterling) – quite a sum of money in those days. The mortgagee, claiming financial difficulties, forced the closure of the mortgage and the Qualtroughs were doomed. In default of cash payment the claimed not only the value of the money loaned, with interest, but the estate, including household chattels. This was the entitlement under the law of the land, no matter how harsh.

Had the Qualtroughs not suffered loss of lands and position by the action of kinsmen, it is unlikely that there would be New Zealand lines of the family today.

BIOGRAPHY OF JAMES QUALTROUGH (1803 - 1881)

This biography is transcribed from chapters 4, 5 and 6 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below. The explanatory note in double square brackets [[ ]] at the beginning of chapter 5 is not part of that chapter.
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4 Family Exodus of 1859

Who was Who in the JAMES QUALTROUGH family bound for New Zealand in 1859:
James Qualtrough (51)
Catherine Qualtrough, nee Clague (47)
James, Jnr (23)
Elizabeth Jane (20)
William (19)
Richard (12)
Anne (10)
Thomas (8)
Sarah (6)
Emily (4)

Two sons, both named Henry, had died in childhood. The first Henry died the year he was born (1843). The second Henry, born in 1845, died in 1852.

Their second daughter, Catherine (15) stayed behind with an aunt and an uncle on the Isle of Man. [(See Genealogical Charts 1 and 4 – 8).]

JAMES QUALTROUGH was 51 in 1859 when he left the Isle of Man to settle in New Zealand – not an adventurous boy but a man of middle-age who must have weighed up the pros and cons thoroughly before making the decision. His wife, Kitty, also entering into her middle-age, had borne 11 children.

James, birthplace Arbory, Rushen Vale, in the southern end of the Isle of Man, was the son of William and Catherine (nee Moore) Qualtrough and he had three sisters – Elizabeth, Margaret and Jane.

[(A few words here about these Manx kinsfolk may make it easier to follow our Family Tree later on.] Elizabeth, a dressmaker, did not marry. She died in 1881. Margaret married Edward Keig, sometimes spelt Kegg, and they had a daughter, Betsy and a son Edward. Jane married John Hudgeon. There were no children of this marriage.

Margaret’s son, Edward, married Christian Moore and they produced three daughters named Kathleen, Irene and Marjorie. Marjorie married Herbert Pedder. [See Genealogical Chart 1)].

Going back to James himself, he had married Kitty (nee Clague) at Malew in 1835. Kitty Clague was the daughter of James Clague and Barbara Kinley, of Ballawhetstone, MAlew. Just why their daughter Catherine stayed behind when the rest of the family migrated is not wholly clear except that she seems to have spent with the childless Aunt Jane and Uncle John Hudgeon of Ballakillowey.

Perhaps there was a pull of heartstrings – at 15 years of age Catherine could have been courting. The eldest Qualtrough son, James Jnr. had spent much of his youth with his grandmother Qualtrough, going back to his parents upon her death in 1856. Communities were close to each other.

The names sound formal, copied from documents. The owners were almost certainly called Jim or Jamie, Kitty or Kate among family and friends, for in James’ shipboard diary[, as you will see,] the children are referred to by the diminutives of their given names.

In much later years their nephews or nieces – some of whom are living at the time of writing - used the shortened name with, of course, a respectful prefix of Aunt or Uncle.

It must have taken courage, faith, optimism – and surely a degree of desperation – for a middle-aged couple with eight children to pull up stakes from a settled land and sail to an unknown country on the other side of the world and start all over again.

The Isle of Man was a rural community with little employment for young people other than to work the land. Farms had been supporting families for generations and had been divided and sub-divided. Most holdings were small, most families were big. What could the future promise?

In New Zealand the Government was enticing the “right” kind of settlers – good, experienced farming folk of some substance – with what was popularly called the “40 acre scheme.” (Officially the Auckland Wastelands Act of 1858). To emigrants who could pay their own passage out the Crown would grant land – allotting 40 acres per adult and 20 acres per child above five years of age and under 19 years of age.

James must have been struggling for some time before the decision to emigrate. It seems he had inherited debts from both his father and father-in-law and was obliged to meet them.

The decision was made. Most of the land that was James’s, comprising three farms, one in the north and two in the south of Man were disposed of, belongings were packed. It was good-bye forever to mystic Mannin Beg – Isle of Fairies – where Qualtroughs had lived for hundreds of years.

Towards the end of June (1859) James and Kitty and the family turned their backs on their Island homeland and their past and crossed to England to make ready for the long voyage to the new land. How their thoughts must have been with Catherine who stayed behind. The tears must have flowed at the moment of parting, the hearts ached.

They made for Liverpool where their ship awaited them. It was the Mermaid, already famous for a race against the illustrious Red Jacket in 1854 on the competitive London-Melbourne run. Mermaid had lost upon that occasion but nevertheless she was the pride of the White Star line, a clipper of 1321 tons built in Nova Scotia in 1853 and destined 50 years later to be wrecked of Southport on passage from Liverpool to Quebec.

She was making her first – and only – voyage to Auckland. Thereafter she was to serve the London-Lyttelton run under the Shaw Savill flag (by charter until 1869 when she was purchased) and to make waves in nautical circles with a record voyage of a mere 75 days from Lyttelton to the English Channel (unloading on the 78th) in 1862.

Such a feat was this that Mermaid was accorded a heroine’s welcome when she sailed into Lyttelton in February 1864. The then LYTTELTON TIMES reported that other ships in port flew bunting and fired a salute to her master, Captain Rose.

The first sight of the ship, black-painted hull a foil for the pine-yellow topmasts and furled white cotton sails must have imprinted itself on the minds of the young Qualtroughs.

Author James Cowan (son of Elizabeth Jane) in his SETTLERS AND PIONEERS, writes of the Mermaid:

“The figurehead, carved by a craftsman of rare skill, was the most lovely mermaid ever chiselled. Her long, blue-black hair, as sleek as a seal’s coat, fell and flowed as to the life and in keeping with tradition, she held a comb and a glass in her hand. The siren advanced, bowing with the rhythmic progress of the ship, ushering the sea rover into the realms of blue water. The swell sometimes buried her generous bosom as the bow fell into the hollow and with the next heave upward, lifted her on to the crest and bared her graceful dolphin tail.”

Then again:

“Looking outboard one would have seen that the vessel had a broad yellow band along her covering-board, defining her sea-kindly sheer and her high lift of bow. No make-believe lines of painted gun-ports chequered her sides. That fashion of 13 dummy ports aside was left to the British ships....... double top-sails had just come in in the Merchant Service but so far the Mermaid’s owners preferred the old-style whole sails.”

Mermaid’s master was a Captain White and he was taking some 400 passengers of various classes out to a new life in a new colony – English, Irish, Scottish, German and, it goes without saying, Manx. It must have taken some planning on the Qualtroughs’ part. Imagine the foodstuffs, clothing, medicines, toiletries, books and other domestic needs for the long voyage for 10 souls plus such household effects that could be taken on a ship which were considered essential.

On July 11 the Mermaid was towed down the Mersey River towards the open sea. On July she spread her three columns of canvas, the proud and serene figurehead rejoicing in the tang of the Irish Sea which the Manx family were never again to sail upon – save the eldest son James Jnr. 22 years later following his father’s demise – and it was southward ho!

James Snr. was a tall, good-looking man, educated, courteous, religious and with a dry sense of humour. This we deduce from a photograph taken of him and Catherine before their departure; and from the writings of his diary and descriptions to James Cowan by his mother (Elizabeth Jane also called Betsy). Jimmy Cowan was about 11 years old when his grandfather Qualtrough died so he would have had some personal memories himself.

The version of James Qualtrough’s diary following on here is one of the copies scattered throughout our family. The original was held by the late Mr. J. A. (Bert) Kinley of Ballafesson, Isle of Man, a descendant of daughter Catherine.

We only wish that James had continued to keep such a diary of his life in New Zealand.

Catherine in the photograph, looks neat, well-dressed and slightly formidable, much less a relaxed person than her husband. But who is to say? Perhaps she just took a poor picture. And with a husband and seven children to look after (James Jnr and daughter Catherine living with relations) body-and-mind must have been on the go from morning to night. There were no labour saving devices as we know them.

Upon Kitty and 20-year-old Betsy must have fallen the bulk of the thousand-and-one details of preparing for the family’s personal needs upon the high seas. According to entries in James’ diary, Kitty was also active in helping sick and distressed fellow-passengers throughout the 100-day voyage. Most of all she kept her own dear ones alive and healthy from Mannin Beg to Aotearoa and throughout the years as early settlers.

The voyage was lively. Tragedy, drama, comedy trod the deck of the ship as surely as ever trod boards of theatre. Entries in James’ diary set the springs of imagination a-bubbling.

5. Voyage to New Zealand

[[Explanatory note: James wrote diary entries most days between Friday 15 July and Wednesday 19th October 1859. They relate mainly to the weather (particularly when it caused issues for sailing the ship) and the location, with some notes about life of the passengers on board ship. Only the introduction and the first two and final two entries are included here.]]

Diary of the late James Qualtrough. The MERMAID left Merseyside 11 July 1859 and arrived Auckland 19 October 1859.

We left the Mersey on the 11 July 1859 about 5 o’clock in the afternoon, tugged by the tug boat RATTLER belonging to the tug company. She did not leave until Wednesday morning at 8 o’clock, when the MERMAID set sail and made her own way at about 8 knots an hour. In the afternoon most of the passengers became very sick. On Thursday the 14th we had something like a hospital on board. The worst of us were James and Ellen Martin. I have been very sick myself but I have never lost my spirits. I have been able to join in our prayer meeting with a measure of delight.

Friday 15th Today when I write, the children are playing about in good spirits. My dear wife and Betsy are beginning to knit and to sew. James and Ellen Martin are a good deal better. We have all day long an hubbub, something like a fair with 400 on board.

.....................

Tuesday 18th We are surrounded with coast fowls, from the Islands, all around, of which I think there are some dozens in numbers. Some small smacks and wherrys trading on the coast. The signals from hill to hill tell a ship has reached Auckland now. The first ship that came within hearing, the Captain called out. “What ships are in Auckland?” He was pleased to hear that the MAORI was not in.

Wednesday 19th About 10 o’clock last night, after we had anchored, the pilot came on board. This morning we got near the wharf in good health.

James Qualtrough

6. Early Years in Pakuranga

IT WAS Spring in New Zealand when the jaunty Mermaid swept into Auckland waters well ahead of her illustrious rival, the Maori, on 19 October, 1859.

Triple-coned Rangitoto, awesome guardian of the Waitemata, a volcanic peak merely dormant, dominated the other half-dozen offshore islands.

“Waitemata? It means ‘sparkling waters’.”
The translation rippled through the ship as excitement mounted. The end of the voyage!

Old gravures show Auckland of those days with wooden jetties on a shoreline no longer in existence, high up in what is now a multi-storey Downtown of Auckland City. There were buildings – the first warehouses and business offices, hotels, private guest-houses, a few shops and silhouetted on the skyline, Partington’s Mill. Here and there, a horse-team drawn cart, a bullock wagon, a saddled horse, await further orders and pedestrians moved gracefully on cobbled streets. The men, in narrow-legged trousers, longish jackets and high hats, escorted ladies in full skirts, bonnets and often with parasols. Pictures which included Maoris showed them in European clothing with tattooed faces, many of then bewhiskered, some with long greenstone ear pendants, somewhat incongruous in their sartorial anachronisms.

Grafton Gully – no bridge as yet – had masses of feathery tree ferns, tall kahakiteas and puriris, topped by an occasional kauri in silhouette, highlighted by a stand of golden kowhai in bloom.

There was much open space among the stolid brown buildings, land that sloped away to open country which rolled towards green hills and blue skies on a long horizon.

Auckland in October: warmth in the sun and a brisk sea breeze scudding clouds that held suggestions of a passing shower across the slender neck of land separating the Waitemata from the Manukau. On the waterfront investigating seabirds, keening and exultant in their discoveries, must have touched chords of memory for the immigrants whose home shores were far away.

James had been allocated Crown land out from Papakura, about 45 kilometres southward from Auckland, in the Hunua bush. Exactly where we haven’t been able to ascertain. It comprised approximately 120 hectares on the arithmetic of the 40-Acre Scheme.

After the preliminaries and formalities of landing and the business at the Land Office, the Qualtroughs were introduced to a bush settler-farmer who lived about two kilometres away from their allotment. He was to take them by bullock cart to their land and give them a hand settling in. James paid him £1 (sterling) a day, which he did not consider excessive in view of the work and time involved; and no doubt for the useful information he could impart.

Papakura was on the Great South Road, which had evolved from the portage tracks of the Maoris to a highway metalled as far as Drury. There was actually a daily coach service from Auckland to Drury, run by a Mr. William Young. It was known, grandly, as the “Auckland, Papakura and Drury Diligence.”

It would not have accommodated the Qualtroughs and their possessions, though, for according to THE NEW ZEALANDER, issue dated 23 December 1857, it was capable of carrying .... “nine substantial yeoman or traders and even nine ladies (provided their several courses of vestments were not open to Mr Punch’s rebuke) with comfort and without distress to the horses.” The PUNCH reference was to a topical joke taken from the famous magazine which was eagerly-awaited reading from ‘Home’.

From James Cowan’s SETTLERS AND PIONEERS comes the following information on the Qualtrough’s first night in the bush – and New Zealand.

“.... The height and thickness of those trees and the density of branch and leafage amazed the stalwart stranger who stood gazing at them, axe in hand. Their boughs stretched far overhead, they were looped together with a rigging more intricate than a ship’s; cable-like grey ropes, round as hawsers and as strong, hung down from the hazy ceiling, like ropes in some woody belfry.

“.... The axeman walked out from the bush fringe to the tents gleaming against the dark of the tall timber. In the little camp there were two tents and a tarpaulin shelter for the piles of baggage trunks, shipboard chests, boxes of food stores and a hundred supplies.

“While he (James snr.,) had explored the bush edge and tested the tree-temper with eye and nose and axe, his family had reduced the miscellaneous loads from the bullock-dray to some order against the night.

“.... Most of their land was covered with standing bush – a tall forest of red and white pine, puriri, rata, kohekohe; on the hills the great kauri; but timber is of no use to the pioneer after enough had been pit-sawn from it for the home buildings. The rest would have to go up in smoke and add to the fiery pall which would presently cover most of the bushland sections.”

Betsy’s most vivid memory of that first night in the bush was of the meal that the mosquitoes made of their faces – “the stinging flies” they called them.

Their neighbour (unnamed) came around the next morning to tell them he had arranged with a group of Maoris down at Papakura Creek to build the newcomers a nikau whare to live in until they could put up a more permanent dwelling.

“.... Two cheerful young Maoris came up and greeted the pakehas. Both could speak some English. They set to on a neat whare with beautifully-made walls of nikau palm leaves, artistic as well as useful, with a thick roofing of fern-tree fronds. By the end of the second day, with the assistance of the white family in cutting, fetching and carrying, there was a rain-tight house, one that would be cool in hot weather and warm and windproof in cold....

.... “gradually the settler and his family fitted themselves into the conditions of the country, on the edge of the interminable forest. It was not so very difficult for these country-bred folk. They cut their way slowly into the bush with the nearby Maoris to call upon for help and bush-sense. When a little ground was cleared the neighbour lent them his bullocks and plough. To the Maoris a few pounds of tobacco and gifts of clothes were more acceptable than money.”

James Cowan observes that the friendly and helpful spirit of the Maoris helped mightily in establishing immigrants on the land in the first two decades of British settlement. Unfortunately it did not last. He writes:

“In the third year of the MERMAID family’s life in the bush the Waikato war began. The kindly Maoris of the South Auckland country were forced into the struggle ....

“.... That unhappy check to the peaceful subjugation of the bush and the winning of a livelihood from the newly-turned soil altered the course of life for many a border family. The tragedy of war, like so many far greater wars before and since, could have been avoided. At any rate, the frontier settlers and the Maori farmers were not the warmakers.”

Perhaps the rumblings of war were behind the decision of James to change his land. We can only speculate on the reasons. Perhaps the distance from church and school played a big part, for James was a deeply religious man, well-educated and keen for his children to be educated.

Perhaps he realised that to turn virgin forest into farmland would take more years of prime-of-life than he felt he had left to him. Perhaps the isolation was too much for Catherine and the girls.

Documents show that James Qualtrough, farmer, of Papakura, purchased land at Pakuranga from Alfred Buckland, stock and station agent, on 4 December, 1860. He bought 118 acres 32 perches (47 hectares) on the main Panmure-Howick highway for which he paid £1,180 (sterling).

East Tamaki, Howick and Pakuranga were already well settled. The populace included retired soldiers, men of the Royal New Zealand Fencibles who, on leaving military service, were given a cottage and an acre of land.

Thousands of immigrants were to arrive in the Auckland areas in the 1860’s and Tamaki-Pakuranga land was favoured for its relatively easy access by water or across country to the port of Auckland, about 23 kilometres away.

The area was good land for wheat and vegetable growing, with ready markets at Howick where troops were stationed, and in Auckland itself. Wheat was transported in sacks to Partington’s Mill – known as the Victoria Flour Mills – and butter and eggs were sold.

For 15 years (1850-1865) access to Auckland across the Tamaki River depended upon a punt operated by a Joseph Williams. According to records this was a pretty uncomfortable, dangerous experience for those forced to use it. The punt was often holed, or its guiding chain broken; and the transport of stock by punt could mean delays of an hour or more. There was a strong current at the point of crossing and mishaps were common.

In his book OLD MANUKAU, historian A. E. Tonson writes:

“.... The traffic crossing in 1862 was quite considerable and the daily average was about 180 settlers and children, 58 horses, 23 carts and 100 cows and sheep.”

Prompted by dissatisfaction from the settlers, the Tamaki Bridge Act was passed in 1864 and a bridge was put across the river in 1866. A. E. Tonson writes:

“The settlers were able to cross on a new 19-span bridge built of materials brought over from Australia. Costing £17,025 (sterling) the bridge was 576 feet in length and with a width of 21 feet and at the Papakura end was a swivel apparatus which opened to provide a passage of 40 feet for large vesels.

“.... In 1916 a new 800-ft concrete bridge was opened and this remained until demolished in 1963 after being replaced in 1959 by the present bridge.”

A. E. Tonson draws a graphic picture of the bridge in use in early days. viz:

“Travelling to town from Pakuranga was quite an event in the early years and on Fridays, dressed in their best, the various families with horse and trap would head for the city market. The toll to cross the bridge was 6d for a horse and cart. As cutters used the river, it was often a race to reach the bridge before the gates were closed and the keeper cranked the span around.”

Not all towngoers went in style. It was quite common for the young and sturdy to walk the distance there and back, sometimes carrying a 25-kilo. sack of flour on their shoulders on the return journey.

A school was not officially established in the locality until 1869 – weekly fee 9d for seniors, 6d for juniors – but James had his younger children taught privately, paying one shilling per week per pupil. The schoolroom was set up in the teacher’s home.

James was a prime mover in having the Methodist Church at Howick, then a predominantly Catholic population, moved to Pakuranga for the use of faithful Wesleyans. [(See chapter on history of the church.)]

James and Catherine died in the same year – 1881 – and both are interred in the graveyard on the site of the church before it was moved to the Howick Historic Village.

We don’t know too much about life at Pakuranga between 1860 and 1881. Certainly it was not a land flowing with milk and honey if James and Catherine had expected such, which is most unlikely.

Although the land was fertile there were two exceptionally bad winters between 1860 and ’63 and the latter year also saw the outbreak of the Waikato Wars which disrupted the lives of all families. Within three months of war being declared, on July 12, all able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 55 were on active service. Youths under 16 and men turned down for active service trained for the Home Guard.

Although Pakuranga was not actually attacked, Maori raiders killed isolated settlers and looted their homes as close to the settlement of Howick – where the Militia was stationed – as Whitford and Maraetai. A family named Trust (how ironic!) were massacred only a couple of miles from Howick in a particularly brutal and unjustified killing.

The Waikato Wars ended officially in 1864 and Auckland areas at least settled into peace. But the year of fear had imprinted itself into the minds of the young Qualtrough children for both Thomas and Emily, though aged only 12 and 8 respectively at the time, told tales of burying valued possessions in the front garden of their house in case the family had to flee to safety. Tommy, though so very young had duties with the Home Guardsmen should the area be attacked, fetching and carrying guns and water – so he said. Memories of his help being appreciated might have been a little dramatised in true ‘boy’ fashion.

The farm was still financially encumbered upon James’ demise. James Jnr. took it on although he himself had a small piece of land at Karaka. By this time Willy, Richy and Tommy had gone off to seek their fortunes in the Waikato, which was forging ahead as the Golden South of the 60’s and 70’s. 
Qualtrough, James (I400)
 
156

JAMES QUALTROUGH (JNR) 1836-1896 maintained family farm

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
--------------------
JAMES, more than likely called Jimmy, eldest of the family had spent much of his youth with his paternal grandmother but returned to his parents’ home upon her death in 1856 when he would have been 20.

He was a young adult when the family migrated and in the only reference of a personal kind we have been able to find – James Cowan’s SETTLERS AND PIONEERS – he is described, along with his much younger brother Richy as “.... giving promise of a strength and sturdiness to equal their father’s.”

Jimmy worked on the Qualtrough farm at Pakuranga and seems not to have ventured further afield than Auckland. Property deeds record that he did have land of his own at Karaka. With changes of nomenclature over the years and lack of detail, it is hard to be sure if the land was in the area we now know generally as Karaka, out from Papakura, or closer to the Tamaki area now known as Karaka Bay.

Of all the family he was the only one to return to the Isle of Man, going back in 1882 as executor of his father’s will to settle up affairs on the Island. [(See Appendix II)]

After an absence of 22 years and as a man approaching his middle-age did he have regrets over leaving his homeland? Was he disappointed that reality failed to recapture the glow of boyhood memories? What were his feelings towards his sister’s motherless children? He must have visited them and must have stood beside the grave of the young Catherine, recalling the years of childhood, the parting and the exchange of letters.

He returned to the farm at Pakuranga, rejoining sisters Anne and Emily, the latter away from home a lot after she became a professional nurse.

The family, by this time, had dispersed. Betsy and Sarah had married earlier as had Willy, now farming at Orakau. Tom, a young widower, was contracting in the Waikato and Richard we understand had gone to Australia.

In 1886, at the age of 50, James married Miss Alice Farnsworth, of Otahuhu, daughter of early settlers. Although he had no children of his own, James must have had an interest in their welfare, for records show that he was a member of the Pakuranga School Committee in 1886 and in 1893 was elected to the Auckland Education Board.

James was unable to lift mortgages on the family farm and had to let it go. This was sometime in the years of 1891-1892. His last years seem to have been in poor health and he died in 1896 at the age of 60. He is interred beside his parents in the churchyard cemetery at Pakuranga. [See Genealogical Chart 4).] 
Qualtrough, James (I489)
 
157

RICHARD QUALTROUGH (1847-1921) - medal for service

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
--------------------
RICHARD, called Richy as a child and Dick later on, must have inherited his father’s strength, according to James Cowan’s references to pioneer days.

As a very young man, and like brothers William and Thomas – he left Pakuranga to make a life for himself in the developing Waikato. He joined the Waikato detachment of the Armed Constabulary Field Force, a body similar to the Canadian North-West Mounted Police, but more actively involved in warfare than the “Mounties”.

The Armed Constabulary had been formed in 1868 to assist the militia keep the peace following the outbreak of the New Zealand Wars and reached its peak of activity and renown in Taranaki against the Hauhaus between 1879-1883.

The “Men in Blue” were courageous, settler-farmer background who could ride well, shoot straight and were prepared to defend what they considered their own. Even after the official end to hostilities the Armed Constabulary patrolled borders, accompanied parties of surveyors pushing through new roads and manned the redoubts and blockhouses set up for the protection of settlers from Maori raiding parties.

Dick Qualtrough was among those awarded The New Zealand War Medal for his services (under the list of medallists he is called ‘Quatborough’ so the Manx name must have been an odd one even then) and gained the rank of sergeant. He took part in an exploration of the Cambridge -Te Awamutu main road with a party lead by Sub-Inspector Stuart Newall.

The Armed Constabulary was dissolved in 1885 and the Militia kept the peace thereafter. Stuart Newall, with the rank of Lieut-Colonel, left New Zealand with the Fifth Contingent for the Boer War and had previously – May, 1898 – commanded the force that settled a dispute in the Waima Valley, near Rawene, in Northland.

Richard Qualtrough, however, like so many settlers who had lived and worked beside the Maori in a harmonious relationship, had no real heart for fighting. He slipped off to Australia (to avoid further military service, it is said within the family) and wandered around, out of touch with his brothers and sisters until 1919, and a sick man, he returned to New Zealand to spend his last years with his kinsfolk.

He stayed a short time with Tom and his family in Hamilton, then went to live with a niece, Alice McGhie (William’s eldest daughter) and her husband George, at Kihikihi. Later he went to live with another niece, ‘Bunny’ Schwarz (William’s fifth daughter) and her husband Bruno, at Matamata, where he died – nursed by his sister, Emily – in 1921, aged 74.

He is interred in the Hautapu Cemetery, Cambridge. [(See Genealogical Chart 4).] 
Qualtrough, Richard (I495)
 
158

SARAH QUALTROUGH (1853-1921) – mother of ten.

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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LIKE HER brothers and sisters, SARAH grew up on her father’s farm at Pakuranga. Only six when she came to New Zealand she would have attended the private school her brother Thomas had spoken of, and watched the menfolk go off on military service and seen her big sister Betsy go from home as the bride of William Cowan.

It was while visiting Betsy at Kihikihi that Sarah would have met her future husband John Haddock, a member of the Armed Constabulary stationed at Orakau Redoubt. John, like Bill Cowan, had come from Ireland and he was a regular visitor to the Cowan home. It was one of his duties, too, to pick up the day’s ration of milk for the Redoubt from the Cowan farm. Pretty Sarah took John’s eye.

Romance blossomed and they were married on February 24, 1876, from Sarah’s home in Pakuranga. John had transferred to the constabulary of the New Zealand Police Force in 1872 and at the time of his marriage was stationed in Hamilton.

They lived in Hamilton for three years where their first three children were born – Edwin Qualtrough, Sarah Evelyn and Winnie Bella.

In 1880 the family moved to Ngaruawahia where their second daughter Emily Bellfield was born, thence to Dargaville where three more children were added to the family – John Mosstown (Moss), William and Herbert.

From Dargaville the next shift was to Warkworth. The change of scenery brought a change of sex in the issue of little Haddocks for after a run of three sons a daughter, Ada Lilian, came into the world. Yet another son followed in 1889 with the birth of Mervyn.

Warkworth brought tragedy into the lives of Sarah and John. Firstly Ada, four years old, became sick and died in 1891 to be followed by Mervyn, only three years old, in 1892. Their tiny graves on a hillside above Warkworth bear mute testimony to the risks of pioneer life.

Sarah and John produced their last child, their 10th, on September 16 1891, a son whom they named Bertie Mervyn although somehow he became known as ‘Pat’.

In 1895 after 25 years of service John left the Police force – a long career when you consider his 6 years of previous service with the Irish Armed Constabulary.

John, not one to sit around, decided to break in land in the Waikato. William went off with John to farm at Karamu in the Waipa County. The life was considered too rough and rigorous for the womenfolk so John installed Sarah and the girls in a comfortable cottage in Pratt St, Ponsonby, Auckland. Edwin and Moss also stayed with their mother and worked in Auckland.

After some years farming, John became ill and returned to the family in Pratt St, where he died in 1903.

The family drifted into their own lives. Edwin, the eldest, who was working for the (then) Northern Steamship Company, was the first to marry. His bride was Elizabeth Jane Butterworth, of Auckland.

Emily – known as Emil – married a master mariner, William Edmund Sinnott; Moss married Williamina Cornwell, farmed for a while, then went into the timber business at Paeroa.

William farmed at Karamu, joined up in World War 1 and was killed in action at Gallipoli. Herbert (Bert) farmed at Karamu and married a local girl, Edith Rose Smith.

‘Pat’ served in the Merchant Navy in World War 1 and became a ship’s engineer on the England-New Zealand run. He married, on the Isle of Man, May Harrison, a great granddaughter of James and Catherine Qualtrough. (They would be first cousins once removed).

The Haddock side appears to have had more contact with the Isle of Man than other branches, for Moss, during his war service, managed a visit to the Island and was warmly welcomed into the hearts and homes of descendants of Catherine, his unknown aunt.

Evie and Bell remained single and lived at the Pratt St. home with their mother and their Aunt Emily who joined them some time after her sister Annie’s demise. Grandson Selwyn Haddock can remember visiting them as a boy and seeing Sarah, then an old lady, in her rocking chair surrounded by the scions of her family.

Some time before her death in 1921, Sarah went to live with Emily in Te Awamutu. She is interred in the Purewa Cemetery alongside her husband. [(See Genealogical Chart 8)] 
Qualtrough, Sarah (I498)
 
159

THOMAS QUALTROUGH (1851-1944) – first to own plough.

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
-------------------
THOMAS, though little more than a stripling, went off to the Waikato, seemingly the Mecca of young men keen to get on, once the land wars had ended. He had grown up on the farm at Pakuranga and attended a small private school.

At 21, he was the first man in the Waikato to possess his own plough and he worked as a contractor around the district, including the large Firth estates of Matamata, breaking in land. He also owned land at Orakau.

It was hard work and it had its dangers. One of the stories he used to tell his family and, later, his grandchildren, was of the occasion in 1873 when he was ploughing land on the Grice and Walker cattle run at Roto-o-Rangi. As he drove his team afield a party of Maoris, armed, appeared out of the Manuka scrub and ordered him to go back.

They told him that the land was still disputed and warned him that if he pushed ahead he would be killed. Tom Qualtrough spoke Maori and understood their character. They frequently gave fair warning of their intentions and there was much bitterness still at the sale of land they considered theirs.

Tom returned to the station and reported the incident, refusing to complete the contract until the argument was settled. Management ridiculed the threat and ignored Tom’s advice to go and talk it out. But Tom stayed firm. “I know the Maori,” he said. “He doesn’t warn you for nothing.”

Others went out the next day and the Maoris struck. One man, Timothy Sullivan, was shot and tomahawked. His head was cut off and his heart cut out and these were carried through the King Country in a gruesome procession of triumph. It was particularly bad luck for Sullivan as the Maoris were after Walker, the part-owner of the station and his manager, a man named Parker.

Tom also told of seeing the old chieftain Te Kooti under interrogation and playing ‘possum’, pretending unconsciousness. Someone lighted a match under his nose and with a yell Te Kooti came to life.

Both Willy and Tom were excellent horsemen and thought little of riding from the Waikato to the Tamaki at a weekend to see their parents and to court their girls. Willy had his eye on Kate Lovie, Tom was keen on Jane Bell, of Pakuranga.

On one occasion Tom rode from the Waikato to Pakuranga on the Saturday and on the following evening men at the frontier-station at Roto-o-Rangi were astonished to see Tom’s horse, without rider, saddle or bridle, come trotting up and put his head over the gate. It seems that the horse had got out of his paddock at the Pakuranga farm and made short work of the journey home – 320 kilometres in two days taken, literally, in his stride. The horse must have swum the Waikato River at Ngaruawahia on his way home for it is unlikely the punt operator would have given a riderless horse a free crossing; who knows? Perhaps the animal had horse-sense enough to wait for a group of people to assemble to cross and mixed with the crowd.

Thomas was 28 when he married Jane, the daughter of a Pakuranga landowner David Bell and his wife Mary. They lived out from Cambridge at Taotaoroa and the following letter from the newlywed Jane to a niece, Jane Andrew, of Pakuranga, was written on December 16, 1878.

“Dear Jane,

I was so pleased to hear from you and I suppose you have been expecting an answer to it long before this, but I hope you will excuse me this time. I will try and not be so long in answering your letters.

They were telling me the last time I heard from them down there (Pakuranga) that you and Georgina recited your dialogue so well at the Good Templars entertainment and I hope you enjoyed yourself that night.

I often think of you all down there and wish I could come to see you sometimes. I have got very few neighbours up here and I felt very lonely for awhile at first but I am getting used to it now. We live near the road to Matamata and there are a lot of people passing every day to and from Cambridge.

“We are milking three cows now and I churn in a bucket as I have not got a churn yet. It takes a long time to come sometimes. There was one week I was churning for about six hours and Tom took a turn and he thought some warm water would fetch it. But I told him I had put some in before and I went away to get a dish to put the cream in and as soon as my back was turned, he got a kettle and poured in all the boiling water thinking to surprise me with the sight of butter when I came back. It was all melted and we just had to bake it up. He never tries the boiling water since that.

“I suppose Christine is growing a big girl now. I hope Benjamin is quite strong now and that all the rest of my nephews and nieces are quite well, not forgetting your father and mother. I hope Georgina will be able to come up here and stay awhile at Christmas. It seems such a long time since I saw them all down there. I expect they are all kept busy with the harvest and dairy. They have not commenced to cut any hay up here yet. The harvest must be a good deal later up here than down there. John King said when he came up they were all mowing their hay down there and that is more than a month ago. I suppose you will be having your Christmas holidays down there; are you going away any place to spend them? It is a pity you could not come up here with Georgina. I would be so glad to see you but I suppose your mother could not spare you so long away on account of wee, wee Christina being so little yet.

“Tell your father he is to be sure and come to see us when he comes to the Waikato. I have not seen your Aunt Hannah yet. I think I will go and see her soon now as I have got a pony and saddle.

“Dear Jane, I will have to draw to a close for the time. Hoping this will find you all well, give my best wishes to your father and mother, brothers and sisters and accept the same for yourself from your
Affectionate Aunt
Jane Qualtrough

(Please write soon.)

Another lonely little lady, Jane, the miles separating her from her loved ones. Sadly, Jane died in childbirth a year later and Tom remained a widower for seven years.

On August 4, 1886, he married Mary Ann (Polly) Prince, 23 years old youngest daughter of Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Prince, English settlers at Alexandra (now known as Pirongia). The Princes had moved from Pirongia to Ohaupo where Joseph Prince had set up the first Waikato Blacksmith business in 1877.

(This Ohaupo home, typical of its day, was demolished about 1975 and had been on the Great South Road between Ohaupo and Te Awamutu, a weatherboard cottage with its living rooms in front and sloping down room by room to a low storage shed at the back. It was not far, and on the opposite side of the road, from the small hillside cemetery where a number of Prince forebears are interred.)

Polly was very musical and played the harmonium for the Sunday services of the Anglican church at Alexandra (Pirongia) a sturdy building that had doubled as a redoubt for the settlers when attack by Maoris threatened at the time of the wars. The church was surrounded by a moat and had a drawbridge.

It was said that Polly could play the service in the dark, a feat no doubt achieved from necessity as the church had only one oil lamp hanging in the centre of the nave. After marriage to Tom Polly attended church nearer home, St Paul’s Methodist Church in Collingwood Street, Hamilton. Polly, a well-made good-looking young woman of strong character and lively personality, had the voice of an angel, so it was said (but, alas, not a temper to match, also said!).

Not only did she sing in the choir for 25 years but passed on her musical abilities to others in the family. (A daughter, Elaine, had an outstanding contralto voice and was trained by a leading teacher of singing of the day, Mrs. Cyril Towsey).

Tom and Polly produced six children, two of whom were the oldest – and nearest – direct descendants of the emigrant family at the time of our Reunion in 1979.

The children, five girls, one boy, were: Catherine Amy; Elsie Mary; James Thomas; Ida Emily; Elaine Annie and Ruby Constance.

Amy married Charles Hardley, one of a plumbing supplies family business in Auckland; Elsie married George Smith, a builder, of Te Awamutu; James worked for the (then) Farmers’ Auctioneering Company as an insurance assessor in Hamilton and married Scots-born Minnie Creighton, of Auckland; Ida married William Martin, a storeman, and lived in Te Kuiti for many years; Elaine married Douglas Hooper, a contractor then farmer of Otorohanga who later retired to Morrinsville; Ruby married Norman Lee, a watchmaker and jeweller, of Te Awamutu.

(It is an interesting sidelight that Norman’s father, the Rev. William Lee, minister of the Grafton Road Methodist Church in his last circuit, used to conduct services at Pakuranga at times then dine with the Qualtrough family in their farmhouse afterwards.)

Tom had set up in business as a butcher in Hamilton in 1879. His slaughterhouse and run-off then occupied 30 hectares of land which is now part of the Frankton Junction railway yards.

He and Polly first lived in Victoria Street (now the centre of the city) situated on the same section as the butchery business but about 30 metres behind and to one side of the shop, up a wide driveway.

A story from an early copy of the WAIKATO TIMES, written by G. H. Roche, concerns a practical joke perpetrated at the time:

“It seems there were persistent rumours of a ‘monster’ having been seen in the Waitewhiriwhiri Creek which fed into the Waikato River at the (then) No. 1 Bridge.

“A couple of pranksters acquired a bullock’s head from Qualtrough’s slaughterhouse, dressed it in a white sheet, and set it up in a tent in the saleyards while a sale was in progress. They charged one shilling per person to witness the unveiling of the ‘monster’ which took place when the tent was full.

“The joke was not appreciated; verified, wrote Mr Roche, by the fact that no-one could be found in town who would admit to having seen the show – although, later, the Waikato Hospital benefited from a donation of a couple of pounds (sterling) paid in single shillings.”
(Twenty shillings to the pound in those days.)

Did Tom ever learn who the practical jokers were? No-one could get more from him than a quiet smile.

Somewhere about 1902 the Qualtroughs moved to a house a mile further down Victoria Street, then a few years later they bought a large, villa-type house in Clifton Road, on the banks of the river. Tom frequently acted as interpretor for the Maori Land Courts and Law Court in Hamilton and his daughter Ruby can remember coming home from school at times to find the front lawn of their property a Maori meeting-place. “Some of the older women looked like Goldie paintings with their dark-blue moko (tattoo on chin), white hair under black headscarf and smoking pipes. They would call out to me in Maori and wave as I hurried inside, just a little bit frightened by their strangeness.”

Tom was for a period of about six years a Borough Councillor then, having disposed of his business – business was not his forte – he returned to contracting. He was very fond of animals and somehow it is not easy to picture him involved in the slaughter of beasts.

He kept horses for the family’s use. Later on transport was by ‘gig’ in those days prior to motor coaches.

After the family had married and left home Tom and Polly gave up their big house and bought a smaller place in Mill Street. Polly had poor health for many years but Tom, a big, robust man, kept a beautiful garden. Polly predeceased Tom, dying in 1933 at the age of 70. Tom, then aged 82, went to live with his eldest daughter, Amy, and her husband Charles Hardley, in Herne Bay, Auckland.

Tom took up bowling for an interest and became a popular figure at the West End Bowling Club. Always a good walker, he would trudge old haunts for miles, even in his late eighties, whenever he went to stay with his youngest daughter, Ruby, and her family in Te Awamutu from time to time.

He died in Auckland in his 94th year and is interred alongside Polly in the Hamilton East cemetery. [(See Genealogical Chart 7)] 
Qualtrough, Thomas (I497)
 
160

WILLIAM QUALTROUGH (1840-1919) - ’Wiremu’ –Waikato identity

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
--------------------
William (Willy) seems to have taken to the pioneer life like the oftquoted duck to water and was not one to get his feathers ruffled easily.

He had pride in his appearance, too, for as a youth walking all the way from Pakuranga to Auckland town on business trips, he would go barefoot, carrying his boots under his arm to keep them clean to change into on hitting Queen Street.

The route the foot-sloggers followed took them around the beaches, over by ferry to Pt. England, across St. John’s College area, into Parnell via a bridge at Hobson’s Creek, then to Mechanics Bay and up the hill to Shortland Street and Queen Street.

He served in the Waikato War and, with a younger brother, Tom, went contracting in the district before settling on a farm.

He courted Catherine Mary Lovie, who lived in Panmure, and would ride horseback from Te Awamutu and Roto-o-Rangi at a weekend to visit her. It was 100 miles over rough country with several streams to ford and the swift-flowing Waikato River to cross – by punt – at Ngaruawahia. Willy would set off early on Saturday, arrive in the evening, eat with and talk with his Kate and leave the next day.

The horses of those days were, it seems, even tougher than the men.

Willy and Kate married in 1872 and settled on a property he acquired at Orakau after the confiscation of Maori lands when the Waikato War ended. They produced a family of eight – all girls – most of whom were born at Orakau.

The children were Alice, Elizabeth, Margaret, Anne, Mary, Amy, Kate and Lilian.

Their fifth daughter, Mary, told her own family that she had started school at four years of age, walking the four miles each day to the schoolhouse at Kihikihi.

At one time in their childhood, when Willy and Kate were called way from home, they were reluctant to leave their daughters alone in such an isolated spot so enlisted the aid of an older nephew to act as protector. The girls remembered the night very well for, amusing themselves by telling ghost stories, they worked themselves into such a state of terror, the male stalwart as well, that they nailed blankets over the windows and doors to keep out the spooks.

The family later shifted to a farm at Kihikihi and a vivid memory was of the eruption of Tarawera in 1886. The rumblings of the fiery mountain blowing its top were clearly heard and the skies were darkened by the ash.

Another story handed down concerned a young lad shopping with a penny during the lean days of 1880 “A farthing worth of sugar, a farthing worth of flour, a farthing worth of candles and a farthing change please” he instructed.

Inflation obviously hadn’t been invented then and there was more truth in the old saying, “A halfpenny’s riches in a farthing’s eye.”

Willy had been brought up in a strictly Methodist home. Kate Lovie was an Anglican. The children were Presbyterians. Perhaps it was a studied compromise; maybe just the propinquity of the kirk. Their children’s memories were of a very happy home life with good neighbourliness instilled by example. Farmers in the district helped each other with haymaking or when stock was in trouble calving, or bogged in swampy paddocks.

Because Willy had no sons he allotted many farm tasks usually considered men’s work to his girls. The most hated was digging the potatoes. Milking and feeding calves were more popular for the animals were regarded as personal friends.

On one occasion Willy being unable to leave the farm, he assigned Annie and Mary (nick-named ‘Bunny’ from babyhood) to take a wagonload of pigs to the bacon factory at Hautapu. The girls set out at dawn. Taking the pigs over a primitive road that seemed to go on forever, meeting an old Irish woman on the way they asked her the time. “Half past o’clock,” she informed them. And no doubt it was.

When darkness fell and the girls hadn’t returned, the family became anxious about them. At last Willy said, relief in his voice, “Here they come!” Though he couldn’t see them he could hear the heavy squelching of the horses’ hooves as they plodded through the swamp.

William had many Maori friends and was affectionately called Wiremu – wonder what they made of the name Qualtrough? The family was present when a monument to the chief Rewi Maniapoto was unveiled at Kihikihi with Rewi himself watching the ceremony from the verandah of the hotel across the road.

In 1902 the William Qualtroughs bought a farm at Fencourt, just out romf Cambridge. (Now the Fencourt Stud). Realising that a creamery was needed in the district and that the Cambridge Dairy Company was not able to finance it, Willy donated an acre of his land for the project and local farmers provided the labour for the factory to be built.

An old barn on the Fencourt property became the community centre for the district and the Qualtrough girls had happy memories of dances, with music provided by accordion, magic lantern shows and wedding parties to which people came from miles around.

Kate Qualtrough tells the story of a friend who, when off to visit them, met a quail on the road. “Where are you going” asked the girl and the quail replied in perfect English (said she), ”To Qualtroughs! To Qualtroughs! To Qualtroughs!”

The word must have got around – all welcome, ladies a plate – or just a ‘flight’ of fancy?

At the dances, it added to the fun to make up rhyming couplets about those present. From a box of memories comes : “Did you notice there the two Miss Q’s who were arranged in navy blues.”

Prior to and during World War 1, William gave permission for the army to use his land for troop training. A letter in his family’s possession is a note of appreciation from Major-General Godley, dated 13 May, 1913. It reads:

“.... I desire to express my very sincere thanks to you for the valuable assistance you have rendered to the Territorial movement in the Auckland District by permitting the free use of your land for manoeuvres during the recent Brigade Camp.

“Exercises in the field, to be of value, should not be cramped and the fact that the troops were able to move about, unrestricted, over a large area of ground, contributed in no small degree to the great measure of success which was undoubtedly achieved and which was almost entirely owing to your generosity.”

William’s last move was to a smaller farm closer to Cambridge. The property had a picturesque two-storey house set among magnificent old trees including magnolias and rhododendrons. Two giant redwoods at the gate were landmarks in the district. Appropriately, it was named ‘the Glen’.

The grandchildren and great-grandchildren can recall Christmas and other family gatherings with tables set outside beneath the flowering and rich-scented magnolias.

When the gentle Catherine Mary died in June 1919, Willy was so grief-stricken that he said to his daughter, Kate : “In six months’ time I shall be with her.”

And he was. He died December 31, 1919.

They are both interred in the Hautapu Cemetery, Cambridge.

The Qualtrough girls - except Lizzie, who died in 1907 of consumption – all made their homes in the Waikato.

Alice married George McGhie, a farmer of Kihikihi; Maggie wed Henry Feisst, a farmer of Matamata; Annie and Mary (‘Bunny’) married farming cousins, Ernie and Bruno Schwarz, respectively. [(See further reference in chapter on planning the Reunion).] Amy married Charlie Shaw, who was employed at the Cambridge Cream Factory; Kate and Lil remained single and lived together in Cambridge for many years. Rather charmingly, if olde worlde, they were referred to locally as Miss Kate and Miss Lil. [See Genealogical Chart 5).] 
Qualtrough, William (I491)
 
161

A grandson of Charles Synnot says that he was born under the name of Charles Kelly on 31 Jan 1858 in Ballintate, Ballymoyer, Co Armagh to Sarah Kelly. Sarah died on 27 Jul 1859 in Bridgeton, Glasgow (her death certificate is in the name Cynot). Charles was therefore only 18 months old when his mother died, and he was brought up by Sarah's mother, also Sarah Kelly (nee McIlroy) in Glasgow, with her other 6 children. Charles changed his name from Kelly to Synnot when he was about 13.

A son of Sarah Kelly said that she died in a poor house. 
Kelly, Sarah (I9064)
 
162

A grandson of Charles Synnot says that he was born under the name of Charles Kelly on 31 Jan 1858 in Ballintate, Ballymoyer, Co Armagh, and died in Bridgeton, Glasgow on 10 Jul 1940. His mother, Sarah Kelly, died on 27 Jul 1859 also in Bridgeton, Glasgow (her death certificate is in the name Cynot). Charles was therefore only 18 months old when his mother died. He was brought up by his grandmother Sarah Kelly nee McIlroy in Glasgow, with her other 6 children. Charles changed his name from Kelly to Synnot when he was about 13. A Poor Relief Report of 14 Nov 1871 relating to Charles says "... boy brought up under the name of Charles Kelly" but the name on the report is "Charles Kelly Synnot". 
Synnot, Charles (I9065)
 
163

A son of Sarah Kelly (mother of Rose's brother Charles) said that Sarah died in a poor house. He (the son) had been told that Parker had a child to a daughter of a cobbler or miller and he used to take soup to them. The daughter, Rose, was born about 1856 in Armagh. She emigrated to New Zealand about 1862-1864 and was fostered by W. B. Montgomery in Auckland. One researcher strongly believes that her mother was a Montgomery, and that this was the reason that Rose stayed with this family – but that there is no hard evidence of this. Further, it is likely that no one told Rose who her mother was. Family documents all state Armagh as Rose's birthplace and Parker Synnot as her father. The researcher’s great grandmother wrote a family tree sheet which says that Rose took the name Montgomery. 
[Unknown], [Unknown] (I9282)
 
164

A son of Sarah Kelly had been told that Parker Synnot had a child to a daughter of a cobbler or miller and he used to take soup to them - this would have been Rose and her mother. A search for Rose Synnot in the Ballymoyer Church records did not find her name in the index, but it is possible that alternative surnames were not searched. If Rose was christened under her mother's name, her record may still be available.

One researcher has found that Rose Synnot was the illegitimate daughter of Parker George Synnot. She was born about 1856-1857 in Armagh. The researcher believes that Rose and Charles Synnot are both children of Parker George Synnot, but that they have different mothers. Rose emigrated to New Zealand about 1862-1864 and was fostered by William Bartley Montgomery in Auckland. She married George Mason in 1875 in Auckland - the marriage notice describes her as the eldest daughter of Parker Synnot, Esq., County Armagh, Ireland.

Another researcher considered that confirming Rose’s mother was very difficult. The researcher strongly believes that her mother was a Montgomery, and that this was the reason that she stayed with this family – but that there is no hard evidence of this. Further, it is likely that no-one told Rose who her mother was. Family documents all state Armagh as her birthplace and Parker Synnot as her father. The researcher’s great grandmother wrote a family tree sheet which says that Rose took the name Montgomery. However, there are no known references to Rose as Montgomery. She is not mentioned in William Bartley Montgomery's will and, if she had taken his name, she probably would have been mentioned. She is not in the list of his children in his newspaper obituary. Rose referred to him as 'Mr Montgomery' and he is recorded as guardian on her 'Intention to Marry' form.

After marrying George Mason, in 1875, Rose spent the rest of her life in Claudelands, Hamilton East. She and George separated about 1896, as she was in Hamilton East then while he was in Paeroa, and he later moved to Great Barrier Island.

Two obituaries for Rose on 5 Jan 1933 in the Auckland Star and the New Zealand Herald shed light on her later life, but little on her life before arriving in New Zealand. They are summarised below:

Rose died aged 76, after a long illness. She was then living at Te Aroha Street, Claudelands, Hamilton. She arrived in New Zealand in 1861 - with her parents, according to the Herald - and spent her childhood in the Bay of Islands and Auckland. She married George Mason, a well-known Newmarket nurseryman, in Auckland in 1875, and they came to Hamilton in the steamer Rangiriri on their honeymoon. Mr. Mason took up land at No. 1 Bridge, where he conducted an agricultural nursery. He later moved to Claudelands. He predeceased Rose by 13 years.

Mrs. Mason lived in Hamilton for 62 years. She was survived by five sons, Charles Mason, Richard Mason and James Mason, Hamilton; Mr. George Mason, Taihoa; and Mr. Arthur Mason, Papakura; and five daughters, Mrs M. Short*, Tauwhare; Mrs. M. Windsor, Frankton; Mrs V. Peterson, Taumarunui; Mrs. F. Kelly*, Leamington; Mrs. F. Grimes, Claudelands. There were 40 grandchildren and 23 great-grandchildren.
* Short - should be SHAW. Kelly - should be KEELEY 
Synnot, Rose (I9056)
 
165

A summary of Thomas Mossman's life is in his obituary in the Daily Telegraph of 26 June 1899:

'MR THOMAS MOSSMAN

Many will read to-day with regret the notice of the death of Mr Thomas Mossman. The deceased gentleman had a large circle of friends, who were often interested in his old time reminiscences. There are very few amongst us now who can remember the return of our troops at the close of the Peninsula war, and who were able to take an intelligent interest in the battle of Waterloo. The old gentleman was born on the first day of 1800, and was therefore at the time of his death within six months of 100 years of age. He was born on Lord Powiscourt’s estate near Dungannan, in Ireland. After completing his education he went to England, and was engaged in lace manufacturing for about twenty-five years. It was during this period that the notorious riots occurred and that Nottingham Castle was fired and destroyed. The Duke of Portland (whose confidence he enjoyed) swore Mr Mossman in as chief of the special constables.
At the end of this period he inherited the family home and returned to Ireland. Fifty-two years ago he married Miss Eleanor Dilworth, who was also born near Dungannan, on Lord Ranfurly’s estate. After a few years’ residence at the old home, he tired of gentlemanly inactivity and sold out and went to Canada and the States. He remained in America about thirteen years, and then came to Auckland at the repeated request of his brother-in-law, the late James Dilworth, of Auckland. He settled in Waikato for a number of years, finally removing to Hawke’s Bay about twenty years ago. He leaves a wife and four children, Mr W. J. Mossman and Mrs D. B. Watt, of Poverty Bay, Mr H. A. Mossman, of Hastings, and Mrs G. Stubbs, of Clive. The deceased did not attribute his advanced age to any special system, but to habitual care to avoid all kinds of excess, and to simple living. His medical attendant pronounced him sound and free from disease. He died peacefully, perfectly conscious and happy. His childlike faith and Christian life attracted the attention of all who knew him.' 
Mossman, Thomas William (I6175)
 
166

A transcribed entry in James Haldane Watt's family bible reads:
'Sarah-Jane Watt the fourth child and first daughter of James Haldane Watt & Jane Sanders Neilson his wife, was born at Auckland 10th September 1857 and baptized by the Reverend Thomas Hamer, Minister of the Independent Church there. Called Sarah after her maternal grandmother and Jane after her mother. Entered in this my family bible (signed J.H. Watt) Baptized 29th November 1857. Gen.49.25 – Ruth 2.12' 
Watt, Sarah Jane (I1494)
 
167

About 1940, Greg Aldridge visited William Hockin's citrus orchard property in Perth while on service overseas in World War II. The orchard is now swallowed up in urban development. Greg also met William's 2 daughters Patricia and Suzanne there. He met them again years later when in Australia. 
Hockin, William (I98)
 
168

According to a family tree in the database "Interesting Family Trees - Genealogy," by C. Houston at http://www.chouston.f2s.com/ there was, in addition to Thomas, Isabella, and their 2 children Abigail and Margaret (born 1832), another daughter, Margaret, born 1836, who married Henry Buist and died 24 Aug 1869. The evidence for this Margaret is said to be a monumental inscription at Peebles. Henry Buist is in the 1851 and 1861 censuses, but appears to be unmarried.

Given the low probability of 2 daughters with the same name alive at the same time, and the lack of detail for the second Margaret, it seems unlikely that she was a child of this family. In addition, the 1841 census has only Thomas, Isabella, Abigail and one Margaret aged 8. 
Ritchie, Thomas (I14188)
 
169

According to a letter from Selina Sarah Martin to her niece Elsie Martin, Diane and her sister Kitty were both very beautiful women.

Diana's death notice in the Londonderry Journal read:
'DIED
On the 16th inst., in this city, Diana, wife of Robert Martin, Esq., A gent of the Sunday School Society for England, in this and adjacent counties, and second daughter of the late Samuel Sealy, Esq., of Dingle. She had been restored, in a great measure, from a severe indisposition, but a sudden and violent return of the complaint terminated her mortal existence in less than one hour. She was a most affectionate wife and mother, and has left a husband and eight children to deplore her removal. She lived in constant dependence on the Divine Redeemer - to her, therefore, to die was gain.'

Of the 8 children noted in her burial notice, only 5 have been identified.

She was buried at Londonderry Cathedral on account of her husband's position as Agent of the Sunday School Society of Ireland, the main provider of primary education in Ireland in the early 18th century. 
Sealy, Diana (I12368)
 
170

According to Burke's Irish family Records (1976), Monckton was born at Ballintate, Co. Armagh.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monckton_Synnot accessed 28 Jul 2014:

Monckton Synnot (1827-1879) was a prominent squatter in Victoria, Australia, the sixth son of Captain Walter Synnot and his second wife Elizabeth, née Houston, and the grandson of Sir Walter Synnot, of Ballymoyer, County Armagh.

Born at the family seat of Ballymoyer, Synnot settled in the colonies in 1836 with his father Captain Walter Synnot and brothers. A year later two elder sons crossed to Port Phillip, followed in 1838 by the next two, Albert and the 12-year-old Monckton. They brought sheep with them and became pioneer landholders at Little River near Geelong, where they remained in various partnerships for about ten years.

By 1852 they had scattered and Monckton, after a brief sortie with Albert to the Californian and Victorian goldfields, was the only one left in the Little River district, as sole owner of the 26,500-acre (10,724 ha) Mowyong, later called Bareacres. In 1852 he assisted in the rescue of the survivors of the flood at the Wedge’s Werribee Station and rescued the granddaughter Annie Emily Lawrence (daughter of Robert William Lawrence and Anne Wedge). On 25 February 1853 at St Kilda, Melbourne, he married Annie Emily Lawrence. He later bought the South Brighton sheep station in the Wimmera where, in 1862, he was a member of the first Horsham District Roads Board, and a councillor in 1862-63.

The prize-winning superfine merino wools of the Western District had been extolled by the Thomas Shaws, C. H. MacKnight, J. L. Currie and others, but in the mid-1860s Synnot's letters to the papers queried their real value and gave rise to a drawn-out and sometimes bitter battle of words. Selling South Brighton in 1868, he bought the large Terrick Terrick station near the Murray River, and for a few years had some share with his brothers Albert, George and Nugent in Gunbar and Cowl Cowl in the Riverina. In 1873 he moved to Melbourne, living in Ballyreen, a mansion on Brighton Road, St Kilda. He bought large central city premises from the merchants and flour-millers, William Degraves & Co., and set up the Flinders Wool Warehouse in Flinders Lane: in this he followed the lead of his elder brother George who, opening in Geelong as a stock and station agent, had held one of the first auction sales of wool there in November 1858.

Synnot entered Melbourne wool-broking in prosperous and expansive times, when many firms were offering warehouse services, selling wool by auction or privately, or arranging and often financing its shipping for sale overseas. A pioneer of the wool trade with the East, he visited China, sent a consignment of woollen yarns to Hong Kong and arranged for silk and cotton weavers at Ning-Po to produce samples of woollen cloth, which were exhibited throughout Australia and New Zealand and at the Paris Exhibition of 1878. His efforts failed at first, but later that year when the first Japanese Trade Commission visited Australia his ideas bore some fruit.

Synnot died on 23 April 1879 at Elsternwick, aged 52, and was buried in St Kilda general cemetery. The eldest of his seven sons, Monckton Davey Synnot, and three of the younger ones carried on as wool-brokers. Both fathers and his son, Monckton, were tall, handsome, genial and convivial, with the Irish tendency to enjoy a brisk argument, but the senior Monckton was the only one to take any part in public affairs.

References & Further Reading
R. V. Billis and A. S. Kenyon, Pastoral Pioneers of Port Phillip (Melb, 1932)
A. Henderson (ed), Australian Families, vol 1 (Melb, 1941)
W. R. Brownhill, The History of Geelong and Corio Bay (Melb, 1955)
A. Barnard, The Australian Wool Market, 1840-1900 (Melb, 1958)
L. J. Blake and K. H. Lovett, Wimmera Shire Centenary (Horsham, 1962)
Economist, 1862, 1863, 2 Feb 1866.
Argus (Melbourne), 16 Sept 1877, 8 Jan 1878, 8 Sept 1883.
'Synnot, Monckton (1826 - 1879)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 6, Melbourne University Press, 1976, pp 238-239. 
Synnot, Monckton (I8315)
 
171

According to electoral roll entries for Lyttelton, Norman was a cabinet maker in the 1930s through until the mid-1950s, living at Jacksons Road and then Selwyn Terrace. From the mid-1950s, he was a shipwright then a carpenter, living in Selwyn Road. He retired between 1966 and 1969.

Norman died at Lyttleton in 1972, and was cremated. 
Prisk, Norman Henry (I1780)
 
172

According to family trees on myheritage.com, Henry's children were Henry (with Frances Mason), and (mother's name not stated) Ellen, Betty, Robert, John and Mary Moisley. Another son was William, born in 1749 to Elizabeth Acres. 
Moisley, Henry (I11722)
 
173

According to Jim & Marlene Cosgrave's family tree on http://www.members.shaw.ca/jcosgrave/paf2/
The book "The Descendants of William Faithfull", by BCT Faithfull indicates that Henry, his wife Mary (nee Cotterill) and their family left England for New Zealand, assisted immigrants, by four different ships over a three year period (1873 -1876). Henry died three months after his arrival in NZ, and although his arrival date is not known, it is presumed that he arrived on the Waipa with his sons (Walter and Alfred), as this was 3 months prior to his death. 
Faithfull, Henry (I12390)
 
174

According to Millicent Hespera Richardson (William Albert’s youngest daughter), William Albert and Mathilde Mackereth first met at the Philharmonic Society in Melbourne. “It was love at first sight and they idolized each other all their lives.” Both played musical instruments but only William Albert sang. He played the harmonium and she played the piano.

They married on 24 Sep 1870 at St Patrick’s Cathedral in Melbourne. He was 31, she was 17. The marriage witnesses were Mathilde’s parents and William Albert’s sister Sarah Jane Sinnott.

In June 1893, while in Dunedin with Albert while he was producing operatic concerts, Mathilde and daughter Beatrice advertised as teachers of pianoforte. Pupils were received at View Street, Moray Place. She continued to work as a music teacher after the Richardsons moved to Queensland.

Mathilde died on 17 Feb 1926 at Lady Lamington Hospital, Brisbane. William Albert died on 11 Aug 1927 at his home at Deighton Road, Dutton Park, Brisbane. They are buried together at Dutton Park Cemetery in Brisbane.

Roma comments on her grandmother Mathilde:
“Tilly was a gifted pianist and in spite of a large family, she accompanied her husband even playing for operas which he produced. She was said to be a ‘lovely lady’ by those who knew her – dignified, quiet and retiring but one who knew her own mind.”

Various items came into Roma’s possession that were originally associated with Tilly Richardson: a circular gold broach and a hand painted satin handkerchief sachet and a cameo broach which Roma made over from a cameo ear ring. 
Mackereth, Mathilde (I3288)
 
175

According to Ron Howell, John was known as "Duco" because of his auto paint shop, where duco paint was sprayed. He did cars and buses for Johnsons Blue Motors. The paint shop was across from the Grand Hotel, Duco was too frequently in the bar and was usually high on a mixture of alcohol and paint fumes. 
Stringer, John Johnstone (I2529)
 
176

According to the will of Judith Jacombs, William lived at 16 Hillaries Road, Gravelly Hill, Birmingham, England in 1813. Children of William are referred to in Judith's will, but are not named. 
Jacombs, William Henry (I1892)
 
177

After Anna's mother died in 1899, she was admitted to the Diamantina Orphanage in Brisbane on 20 Jul 1900, with her sisters Christina and Nancy and brother James. It seems that she did not live there, but boarded with a Mrs Webb, and later a Mrs Affleck. Anna was discharged from the orphanage on 23 Jul 1903, but the register does not say where she was living then. At some stage she moved to New South Wales.

On 3 Apr 1912, Anna Carolina Amalia married Andrew Moir Menzies in Paddington, Sydney, N. S. W. Andrew, a stonemason by trade, was born 29 Jan 1882 in Perth, Scotland to Andrew Moir Menzies and Helen Christina Menzies. In WW1 he served in the 9th Field Company, Engineers, A. I. F. Anna and Andrew had 3 children.

In the 1930 electoral roll Andrew Moir Menzies is recorded as living at 17/19 Johnson Street, Artamon and in the 1936 roll he (but not Anna) is recorded at 5 Violet Avenue, Artamon.

Andrew died in 1938.

Little is known of Anna’s second marriage, to Harold Joseph Smith (now using the name Anna Caroline Amelia), although electoral rolls from 1936 to 1958 show that she lived at 50 Buckra Street, Turramurra. This was where her son Robert was living in 1936 and also where her son Ronald was living in 1958.

Nancy Hanify visited and stayed with Mollie at 50 Buckra St in 1950. Nancy referred to a letter from her husband Basil that mentioned a crush that Nellie (Molly's daughter) had on him in her adolescent years. Nancy wrote "We dare not let Mollie know about it, seeing the way she feels about men. Poor Mollie. She is a queer mixture."

Mollie's husband Harold Joseph Smith was in Wollongong by 1943, and still there at the time of Nancy's visit to Buckra Street, so it is not surprising that Nancy does not mention him in her letters.

Andrew Menzies had been a skilled tradesman, Harold was a labourer all his life. They appear to have been very different people. It is hard to understand what would have brought Mollie and Harold together. It seems that Mollie was no stranger to broken relationships with men.

On the 25 Mar 1960, Anna died of coronary occlusion (heart attack). Her daughter Helen Tunbridge of 48 Buckra Street, Turramurra reported the death. Anna’s remains were cremated at Northern Suburbs Crematorium on 28 Mar 1960 and her ashes scattered. 
Bak, Anna Carolina Amalia Jensen (I10129)
 
178

After Harold died in Oct 1955, probate of his estate was granted on 19 Jan 1956 to Annie Emily Seton Challen, Harold's sister. The estate was valued at £2723 11s. 
Reid, Harold de Boisvlle Boswell (I8968)
 
179

After her husband William Runciman died in 1922, Violet married David Pedersen. 
Mason, Violet (I9262)
 
180

After her mother died in 1899, Nancy was admitted to the Diamantina Orphanage in Brisbane on 20 Jul 1900, with her sisters Anna and Christina and her brother James. It seems that she did not live there, but boarded with a Mrs Pedersen, and later a Mrs Michelson. Nancy was discharged from the orphanage on 23 Jul 1903, but the register does not say where she was living then.

In March 1912 Nancy was awarded a Sunday School prize for the highest mark in General Assembly Examination at the Wynnum Manly Sunday School - possibly Presbyterian. Perhaps she lived in the Wynnum Manly area as a child - it is on Moreton Bay, near Brisbane, a long way from her origins near Maryborough.

At some stage she moved to New South Wales. Although born as "Nancy Annette Bak", she used the surname "Jensen-Bak" at times.

A letter dated 5 Jan 1949 from her sister Maria Elisabeth Boyland was found among the probate papers of their uncle, John Ramage Campbell. In the letter, Maria states that, after the death of her mother (in 1899), she lived with her aunt and uncle viz: Marie Elizabeth and John Ramage Campbell nee Pohlmann. It is posible that Nancy joined her sister Maria, to live with their aunt and uncle at Canley Vale, New South Wales.

Postcards from her brother-in-law Andrew Menzies to Nancy during WW1 indicated that Nancy had a close connection to an uncle and aunt, and possibly lived with them. John Ramage Campbell and his wife Maria Elisabeth are the only uncle and aunt known to have been in NSW at around that time. Andrew's letters indicate that he had a close relationship with Nancy (at least in his view), it is unclear if he was a father figure or an admirer - possibly a bit of both. It is odd that his letters do not mention his wife and 3 young children.

Nancy's aunt Marie Elisabeth and her husband John Ramage Campbell lived at Canley Vale, Parramatta/Cabramatta where John was a poultry farmer. When Nancy met Basil Aubrey Page Hanify in about 1925, she was a domestic servant at the Sutherland poultry farm of Basil's father Hugo. Perhaps Nancy got the job through business connections between John Campbell and Hugo Hanify.

If Nancy did live with the Campbells, she probably attended school at Cabramatta or Canley Vale. The State school attendance records for these areas are held by the N.S.W. State Archives, but there are no records for the period 1900 to 1912. There were no Presbyterian or similar religious schools operating in the area between 1900 and 1912.

In 1926 Nancy and Basil married at Parramatta. Their first 2 children were born in NSW, they moved to Wellington, New Zealand, and raised their six children in the suburb of Kaiwharawhara.

There is oral family history that Nancy ran a successful catering company while young – still in her teens. She was also said to be a registered nurse. However, her name (as Bak, Jensen Bak or Hanify) could not been found in a search by John Goodwin in Jan 2014 in the N.S.W. Archives records for State Registered Nurse records. Where the surname pages were mutilated, the given name was checked. It is possible that she qualified in Queensland before meeting Basil in NSW about 1925. The medal which Nancy wore on her nursing uniform has survived, but it is simply an enamelled British coin from about 1826-1827 with no indication of a nursing qualification.

Something happened to Nancy, possibly a breakdown. Later in life, she was not a good nurse or cook. There was the story of a grandson aged about 4 staying with her for a few days, who fell off the roof - after that, according to Nancy, he was a very good boy, kept still – but when other family members saw him, his eyes were rolled right back. Clearly he was badly hurt and Nancy had not noticed.

Nancy holidayed in Australia in 1950. In Queensland she visited Gympie (its significance is unknown) and Maryborough, at one stage staying with Sam and Joyce (relatives, but surnames unknown). She was to search for "Jeanie", of whom she had found a trace, but whether she succeeded is not known. She then travelled by train to Sydney on 9-10 June, with a stopover at Brisbane. She stayed with her sister Mollie at 50 Buckra St, Turramurra, and spent time with Mollie's daughter Nellie who lived at 48 Buckra St. She wrote several letters home, to Basil and to her children, mainly on family matters. She related a curious dream - that she was back home, and Basil did not want her. Also, Nellie dreamed that she got 2 blank sheets of paper from Basil with a question mark at the bottom and the words "don't hurry" underneath it.

A letter from Basil to Nancy mentions Nancy meeting Marshall Russack. In 1925, a Marshall Russack owned a motor garage on Princes Highway, Sutherland, on the corner of Blacksmith's Lane. Basil encouraged Nancy to visit Sutherland to look up John and Marge - grand people who would welcome her with open arms. He also suggested that she visit Bath Road, where the Hanify poultry farm was.

Nancy referred to a letter from Basil that mentioned a crush that Nellie (Molly's daughter) had on him in her adolescent years. Nancy wrote "We dare not let Mollie know about it, seeing the way she feels about men. Poor Mollie. She is a queer mixture."

Nancy noted on 27 June that she had not been to see Aunt Edie Hooper, because it had been so wet. "Aunt Edie" is possibly Edith Ellen Hooper (nee Richardson) who was related to Basil - they were first cousins once removed. In 1950 Edith Hooper was living at Chatswood, which is about 9 km from Turramurra.

A family anecdote concerns Nancy and her granddaughter Erin making collages, using curled wood shaving to simulate people’s hair, it was from building work being done by family members (probably Erin's father John and brother Stephen). Nancy was a caring person, she loved animals, and had cats (some half wild) plus other animals. 
Bak, Nancy Annette Jensen (I267)
 
181

After James' mother died in 1899, he was admitted to the Diamantina Orphanage in Brisbane on 20 Jul 1900, with her sisters Anna, Christina and Nancy. It seems that he did not live there, but boarded with a Mrs Pedersen. James was discharged from the orphanage on 23 Jul 1903, but the register does not say where he was living then.

Upon the declaration of WW1, James enlisted in the 23rd Signal Company (Australian Engineers) as a private. At his enlistment on 17 Sep 1914, James gave his civilian occupation as labourer, of Maryborough, 19 years of age.

James’ military record shows him as a member of the 15th Battalion that stormed the beaches at Gallipoli, with the battalion suffering very heavy losses as they continually assaulted the Turkish positions. On 16 May 1915, while fighting around Quinn’s Post, James was wounded in action. After hospitalisation in Egypt (Alexandria), Manchester and London and through his wounds, he lost his left arm. He was shipped home in Nov 1915 and discharged wounded on 12 Apr 1916.

In 1919 James married Alice Ruby Keyburn and they lived in Netherby, Queensland with James working as a labourer. Six years later they were living at White Rock, via Cairns. James and Alice had 3 children.

James died 15 Aug 1948 at Walsh River M.R.C. Camp via Mungana, Queensland. There he was employed as a foreman. He was interred in Chillagoe Cemetery on 17 Aug 1948. No headstone was recorded. The cause of death was coronary occlusion (heart attack). He left his widow Alice Ruby, who remained at White Rock, far north Queensland, and adult children Leslie and Kenneth. James and Alice’s descendants still live at White Rock. 
Bak, James Jensen (I6356)
 
182

After Lawrence died in Jan 1959, probate was granted to his widow Edith Emily Boswell-Reid in Apr 1959. His effects were valued at £7676 7s 8d. 
Reid, Lawrence Jasper Boswell (I8964)
 
183

Agnes died at the age of 17 days. 
Mackereth, Agnes (I14671)
 
184

Albert Vincent Richardson was born in Dec 1873 in Melbourne. When 9 years old, he travelled from Adelaide to London on the ship Hesperus in 1883 with his parents and five siblings, including Millicent who was born en route. While in England, he fell deeply in love with Eastbourne, a passion he retained all his life.

As a child he enjoyed the “minstrels” - and his daughter recalled him hearing him singing the songs he had learnt from them to himself from time to time.

The Richardson boys went to a School for the Sons of Professional Gentleman where Albert Vincent was taught a “smattering of languages” as he subsequently described to his daughter.

Albert Vincent’s daughter Roma assessed the quality of this education as follows:
“There is no doubt that their moving from country to country, and from one state to another was a definite hindrance to the children gaining the formal examination results required for them to enter professions. William Albert Richardson took time personally to participate in their education, giving them a liberal one as regards to the world at large, as well as in particular subjects such as music.”
Roma says:
“I can judge the combination of inheritance and family environment only as regards my own father Albert Vincent Richardson whom a neighbour of ours described as “an aristocrat.”
“He was tall and good looking; his singing and speaking voice pleasant in tone and his diction clear. He had an excellent memory and he told us most interesting stories of the characters he met when he drove a buggy and pair over most of Victoria and parts of Tasmania, serving his firm as a commercial traveler. I have never known him make a spelling or grammatical error. He read widely and deeply. His favourite novel was Pickwick Papers [Charles Dickens] and in contrast he enjoyed biographies of world leaders and histories such as the Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire.”

Opera in New Zealand

Under the name “Vincent Richardson”, Albert Vincent took part in his father William Albert’s operas in New Zealand. It is not known if he was in NZ for the entire 1893-1895 period. He was there at least by June 1894, when he performed in “Maritana” which opened on 20 June 1894 at the Princess Theatre in Dunedin, for a four night season. Beatrice played the principal role of Maritana, and Albert conducted. On the second and fourth night, Vincent Richardson played the part of the King of Spain.

In March 1895, William Albert announced the inauguration in Auckland of a series of Grand Operatic Concerts, on the same scale as his concerts over the previous 15 years at Melbourne, Adelaide etc.

By April, the “Maritana” rehearsals were progressing satisfactorily. There were to be 2 full casts of principals. Beatrice Richardson and Madame Florence Anderson were cast as Maritana, and Vincent Richardson and A. Horton Busby as Don Jose. The opera was to be produced at the Opera House on 1 July and the rest of that week.

The Evening Star review of the opening night considered the production “fairly successful”, but was not appreciated as much as it might have been, as “Maritana” had been staged frequently by travelling companies with the best singers seen in Auckland. Mr [William Albert] Richardson conducted the orchestra ably, and Beatrice performed well, with one of her songs being encored. She “spoke her words naturally and distinctly, and did not appear to be so much affected with nervousness as some of the others did”.

The review of the second night noted that the production, by a new cast of amateurs, showed much improvement on the opening night. The acting was not as good, but the music was on the whole a great deal better. Vincent Richardson as Don Jose was more successful with his singing, in which he did excellently, than his acting. On the whole he made an interpretation of the part of Don Jose that was a feature of the performance.

The Observer considered that the production of “Maritana” by amateurs was very much to Mr. Richardson’s credit, and had positive comments on Beatrice and Vincent.

“Maritana” was re-scheduled for 10 and 12 August, and then two Grand Final Performances on 30 and 31 August. The cast included Beatrice (on the 31st), Vincent (both nights), and also Mr. Hampton (both nights) as the Marquis in his first appearance on stage.

The Auckland Star reported that the final performance was well attended, the opera was well produced throughout, with the singing and acting being very creditable. The Observer gave a more detailed review. The two final performances played to large and enthusiastic audiences.
“On Saturday night, Miss Beatrice Richardson, as Maritana, was in splendid voice, and achieved a brilliant success, her artistic singing and vivacious acting being the feature of the performance. Mr Vincent Richardson, as Don Jose, and Mr Archie Kent, as Don Caesar, were also heard at their best, and, by their splendid performances, contributed in no small degree to the success of the opera”.

Back in Australia

Roma reports that, when William Albert and Mathilde settled in Brisbane in about 1898, Albert Vincent Richardson did not accompany the family to Queensland. He struck off on his own and took a job in Melbourne with the importing firm H Clarke & Co. where over time he rose to be Managing Director. Clarke asked Albert Vincent to represent him in court in respect of his (Clarke’s) unwise land transactions. There might be a record of this court case still in existence.

In 1908 Albert Vincent married staunch Presbyterian and poetess Mary “May” Gardiner Kerr in Melbourne, Victoria. He met her during his travels around country Victoria where she was working as a milliner in her brothers’ store. He was a commercial traveller.

He worked as a warehouse manager when they lived at Canterbury, Melbourne. By 1936 he was a poultry farmer at Ferntree Gully, Melbourne.

On 15 Jan 1944, The Argus published a letter from William Albert, entitled “Opera in Australia”:
Sir: Referring to the obituary notice of the late Mrs Emlier Raphael in your issue of January 8, you state that Italian opera was first introduced in Australia by M. Simonsen. This is not correct. William Lyster was the first to introduce Italian opera into Australia. My father was the leading baritone of both Lyster’s and Martin Simonsen opera companies. Albert Richardson (Lower Ferntree Gully).

Albert Vincent died in 1958 and his wife Mary in 1974. They are buried together in Box Hill Cemetery close to the grave of their baby daughter Audrey and surrounding by relatives from Mary’s side of the family. The Kerr monument is a very distinctive landmark to the Richardson grave. Albert Vincent’s descendants are mainly based in Melbourne, with some based in Brisbane and country Victoria. 
Richardson, Albert Vincent (I3252)
 
185

Alice Ruby came from a Victoria-based family.

She married James Bak in Queensland in 1919, and was on the electoral roll that year as living in Tiaro South, Wide Bay. It appears that she spent most her of adult life in north Queensland, mainly White Rock and Cairns.

However, there are electoral roll entries for an "Alice Bak" in 1954 and 1958 at 50 Archer Street, Chatswood, NSW, occupation: home duties.
Thomas Mileham Thick jnr., ex-husband of Ruby Bak's niece Maria Elizabeth, lived in the southern suburbs of Sydney. Chatswood is in the northern suburbs, but he did not mention this possible connection in interviews with John Goodwin.
In 1963, there was an Alice Bak at 117 Bellevue Rd, Bellevue Hill, Wentworth, New South Wales, as well as Alice Ruby Bak at Cairns, Queensland.
Compounding the mystery is an "In Memoriam" notice for James Jensen Bak (died 15 Aug 1948) in the Sydney Morning Herald of 15 Aug 1949, inserted by Mrs R. Bak, c/- Mr Sherry, 55 Huntington Street, Crow's Nest, NSW. It is difficult to believe that this is not Ruby, but the name Sherry has no known connection to the family. However, Andrew Menzies (husband of Ruby's niece Molly) gave 55 Huntington St as an address when he enlisted for WW1, so the house may have been associated with the family for several decades - this is yet to be confirmed.
In Feb 2014, John Goodwin inspected the rate ledgers and notices for Huntington Street 1914 to 1920 and 1947 to 1951. In 1914 to 1917 there were no street numbers, only rate notice numbers. 1918 to 1920 and 1947 to 1951 did have street numbers. However, there were no recognisable names.

It is not clear if Ruby lived for some years in NSW, or if "Alice Bak" is a different person. 
Keyburn, Alice Ruby (I6789)
 
186

Alice's signature, dated 13 Dec 1904, is in a book "Lindley Murray's English Grammar" (1859) which her uncle Dom Placid Sinnott purchased for 3d at Bathon 16 Aug 1875 - perhaps Dom Placid bequeathed the book to her. 
Murphy, Alice (I4252)
 
187

Although Edmund was baptised on 27 Sep 1841, according to the Lady’s Island baptism register,  his Australian death certificate says that he was 68 (i.e. born about 1831) when he died in 1899. It is likely that Edmund’s details were not known to his associates, and no family members were present at this death.
 
Edmund and his brother William arrived in Melbourne, Australia in 1867 on 10 June on the ship Hahnemann from Liverpool. 
 
In 1978 the Wexford People newspaper published an extract for a letter from Edmund and William from the address of their uncle William Sinnott at Emerald Hill, Melbourne Australia:
 
"Dear father and mother, you will be glad to hear that we arrived safely in Australia after a disagreeable voyage of 115 days. We have been up with uncle William to the diggins, but could not get any gold, and have come down to Melbourne again where we expect to get employment"
 
In 1881 Edmund Sinnott sued his uncle William Sinnott in Melbourne to recover a debt only to find the old man claiming insolvency on the basis that he had gifted his ships to his daughter Mary Agnes Hockin and had no assets left in his own name.  William was then living with his eldest married daughter in Powlett Street, East Melbourne with all his remaining young children.
 
Edmund’s death certificate gives his occupation as gold miner.  He died in 1899 at the Belmore Hotel in Gulgong, New South Wales.  He was buried on 10 April 1899 at the Roman Catholic cemetery in Gulgong.  The probate documents paint a picture of a man on his own, with family far away,and only one person who knew him at all, and that was for only 12 months.  The executor of Edmund’s will was the doctor who attended to him when he was dying.
 
Edmund’s will
 
This is the last Will and Testament of me, Edmund Sinnott of Gulgong, in the colony of New South Wales, miner, made this ninth day of April, one thousand, eight hundred and ninety nine.
I give, devise and bequeath to my brothers and sisters now surviving, children of Robert Sinnott of Bunarge, County Wexford, Ireland, farmer, all moneys that may be in my possession or that may be to my credit in any Bank at the time of my death, to be equally divided amongst them, after all my just debts, funeral and testamentary expenses are paid and I hereby appoint Dr John Laing Martin McCreadie of Gulgong aforesaid, sole executor of this my will.
 
Witnesses to the will were Samuel Trevenen Bishop and John Robert Fletcher.
 
Edmund’s probate documents
 
Included in the probate documents was a schedule of Edmund’s estate and effects. He had 212 pounds in a current account at the Government Savings Bank, Gulgong and 34 pounds on deposit.  His only other assets were plant and tools worth one pound 3 shillings.  His debts were seven pounds for burial charges, plus his hotel bill, doctor’s fee and will, a total of four pounds 16 shillings.
 
Among the affidavits lodged with the application for probate of Edmund’s will were these:
 
By John Robert Fletcher on 26 May 1899:
1.         On or about the seventh day of April last past a man whom I had frequently seen but whose name I did not know came to my hotel ill was attended by a doctor there and afterwards died at my hotel at Gulgong aforesaid on the ninth day of April last past.
2.         Before his death the man aforesaid requested me to act as one of the attesting witnesses to his will and he then informed me that his name was Edmund Sinnott and after his death I saw his dead body on the ninth day of April last past.
 
By John Laing Martin McCreadie, medical practitioner, on 13 June 1899:
1.          The above named deceased departed this life at Gulgong in the Colony aforesaid on or about the ninth day of April in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety nine having first duly made and published his last will and testament in writing dated the ninth day of April in the year one thousand eight hundred and ninety nine whereby he appointed me this deponent sole executor thereof.
2.         The document produced and shown to me at the time of swearing this my affidavit and marked by me by signing my name in the margin thereof is I believe the last will and testament of the above named deceased and the attesting witnesses thereto are Samuel Trevenen Bishop and John Robert Fletcher.
3.         The said deceased had whilst living and at the time of his death estate and effects within the Colony of New South Wales.
4.         I will pay all the just debts and legacies of the deceased so far as the effects and estate of the said deceased will extend and the law bind me and I will render a just and true account of my administration thereof unto the Registry of the Suprem eCourt within twelve months from the date of grant of Probate herein.
5.          The said estate and effects are under the value of two hundred and fifty two pounds.
 
By Henry James Falconer on 23 May 1899:
1.         On or about Sunday the ninth day of April last past I saw one Edmund Sinnott at John Robert Fletcher’s Belmore Hotel at Gulgong aforesaid and he then appeared to me to be very ill.
2.         I had known the said Edmund Sinnott for about twelve months by that name and was well acquainted with him.
3. I am informed and believe that the said Edmund Sinnott died at the said hotel on or about the ninth day of April last past. 
Sinnot, Edmund (I3777)
 
188

Although we know little of Constantia's life, she left a will, signed on 19 Feb 1724 and proved on 27 Mar 1827. The executor was her brother, James Wilson. She left apparel and furniture to her niece Sarah Sorbert all her apparel and her household furniture, and left her estate and effects to James Wilson, to pay her funeral expenses and to keep £4 for his work as executor. Sarah Sorbert was to be paid interest from the income from the estate during her lifetime while she was independent of a husband, plus £100. After Sarah's death, the property was to be divided up:
- £200 to be divided between James Wilson's daughters;
- £10 to Frances Maria Cripps;
- £200 to Constantia's niece Constance Evans Sorbert;
- to her nieces and nephews Constantia, Elizabeth, Rebecca, William and Joshua Sorbert £10.

James Wilson or his heirs were to have the remaining property after satisfying the bequests 
Barland, Constantia (I3339)
 
189

An Anne Hall was listed in Griffiths Valuations as an occupier of a house and garden, area 20 perches, at Mosstown Island in 1854. The immediate lessor was Hon. L.H.K. Harman. There was also a John Hall listed as occupier of land 2 roods 36 perches) at Keenagh, with the same lessor. 
[Unknown], Anne (I11210)
 
190

An entry on ancestry.com asserts that, in 1876, Mary Watt (born 1862) had a daughter in Lesmahagow to **** Dodds. In the 1881 census Mary Dodds is with Mary Watt (born 1862) and her father William Watt. Mary Dodds is described as William's granddaughter. However, Mary Dodds' age in 1881 is given as 0 - it is unclear whether this is correct or whether it should be 5. However, in the 1891 census a Mary Watt (niece), age 10 and born in Lesmagahow is with William Watt, brother of Mary Dodds' mother Mary. So it seems likely that Mary Dodds was born in 1880, not 1876, and by 1891 was known as Mary Watt. 
Dodds, Mary (I14282)
 
191

An extract from Florence's will, Birmingham Central Library: Florence Susie Jacombs (spinster) of Sherindon Rd, Balmoral, Parkstone nr Bournmouth, Dorset, Died 2 Mar 1929. Effects to Elsie Marion Jacombs (sister) 
Jacombs, Susan Florence (I2405)
 
192

An obituary in The Gentleman’s Magazine July - December 1866 on July 15 reads:
'At Moneymore, co. Londonderry, aged 85, Major Rowley Miller. The deceased was the sixth son of the late John Miller, esq., of Moneymore (who died in 1820), by Margaret, dau. of P. Oulton, esq., of Dublin. He was born in 1781, and in 1798 was appointed to the Londonderry Militia, of which regiment he became Major in September, 1850. Major Miller, who was senior officer of all the militias of Great Britain and Ireland, was a magistrate for the cos. Antrim and Tyrone, a D.L. and J.P. for the co. Londonderry, and was for forty-six years agent to the estates of the Worshipful the Drapers’ Company. Several of Mr. Miller’s ancestors took an active part during the siege of Londonderry. He married, in 1806, Margaret, dau. of the Rev. Thomas Torrens, by whom he has left, with other issue, a son, John Rowley Miller, esq., now of Moneymore, who was born in 1808, and married, in 1830, Emily Charlotte, dau. of the late Rev. Henry Stewart, D.D., and niece of the late Sir J. Stewart, bart., of Ballygawley, co. Tyrone.' 
Miller, Major Rowley (I12359)
 
193

Anastasia is buried in Church of the Assumption cemetery at Lady's Island with her husband James. The inscription says that she died May 9th 18(6?)1 aged 80. According to the Civil Registration death entry, she died at Lady's Island in 1891 aged 84. 
Kearns, Anastasia (I4114)
 
194

Andrew was the second surviving male in the Dilworth family, he was born in 1823, 8 years after his brother James. There were 4 Dilworth infants born during the period who died as infants, as well as his sister Eleanor. Andrew came to New Zealand with his American wife Mary Jane at the request of his older brother James in 1860. James settled them onto 134 acres of a 2000 acre undeveloped block of land he owned in the Waitakere ranges. Andrew and Mary Jane did not produce any children. In May 1881 Andrew sustained very severe injuries following a fall from a horse. He never fully recovered from these and died on 21 September 1881 at his brother James' residence in Remuera. His widow Mary Jane choose not to remain in New Zealand following her husband’s premature death and returned to her native USA where she died in San Francisco on 16 May 1901. 
Dilworth, Andrew (I11152)
 
195

Andrew's parents were Robert Ferguson Menzies and Helen Christina Moir. Andrew is with them in the 1891 census of Scotland. The informant for Andrew's NSW death certificate, H.M. Gibson, clerk, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, gave Andrew's parents as Andrew Moir Menzies and Helen Christina Moir. It appears that the informant was misinformed.

Andrew enlisted in the 9th. Field Co. Engineers A.I.F. on 13 Jan 1915. He gave his place of birth as Perth, Scotland, his age as 33 years 11 months and his trade as stonemason. His previous Army service was 3 years with the Black Watch Grenadiers (Royal).

Andrew listed his next-of-kin as his wife, Anna Menzies. He gave 2 addresses, both scored out: 67 Alexander Street, Crows Nest and 55 Huntington Street, North Sydney. Crows Nest and North are adjoining suburbs in Sydney, and the streets are very close together.

In Feb 2014, at Stanton Library, North Sydney, John Goodwin inspected the rate ledgers and notices for Huntington Street and Alexander Street in the period 1914 to 1920. There were no street numbers 1914-1917, only rate notice numbers. 1918 to 1920 had street numbers, but there no recognisable names.

Andrew's person details were:
Height: 5 foot 6 inches
Weight 135lb.
Complexion: Dark
Hair: Black
Eyes: Blue (blue eyes with black hair - an odd combination).
Religion: Presbyterian
He embarked for U.K. on 5 Ju; 1916 and arrived at Plymouth on 31 Aug 1916, then to France 22 Nov 1916. He was wounded in action on 16 May 1918, but returned to the front and saw the war through to the end. He was discharged on 3 Nov 1919.

In 1918, he sent several postcards to his sister-in-law Nancy Bak. They indicate that he had a close relationship with Nancy (at least in his view). It is unclear if he was a father figure or an admirer - possibly a bit of both. He mentions Nancy's aunt and uncle several times, but not his own wife and 3 young children.

Andrew and Mollie were living apart from at least 1930, and they divorced in 1936.

Andrew died at the age of 56. A funeral notice was inserted in the Sydney Morning Herald not by family but by Mrs E. M. Austin. She was probably his friend following his divorce. Andrew's remains were cremated at the Northern Suburbs Crematorium. His memorial plaque inscription reads:
Andrew Moir Menzies
Died 5 November 1938
It is odd that his cremation plaque was not issued by the veterans department. Most Australian WW1 and WW2 veterans receive a war service plaque, which, apparently, is at no charge. The undertaker would have known this - so perhaps the family turned it down. 
Menzies, Andrew Moir (I6792)
 
196

Ann's father William Hunter was a threadmaker of Dundee, Scotland.

There is a birth for an Ann Hunter in Edinburgh Parish, Edinburgh on 30 Jun 1751, parents William Hunter and Christian Henderson. This may be the same Ann Hunter, but more evidence is needed. 
Hunter, Ann (I6179)
 
197

Anne Elizabeth was known as Anny, at least by her aunt Selina Martin, who wrote at length about 'Anny' in her 1831 book Narrative of A Three Years' Residence in Italy, 1819-1822 (2 ed).

When Anny (Sir Walter's daughter) was dying, she spoke of the pleasant days which she had passed at her brother's house at B_____ [Ballymoyer] when dear little Walter was with her, as the happiest of her life.
Her brother would have been Marcus, Sir Walter's eldest son and heir; 'dear little Walter' was probably Marcus's son (born 1807 at Ballymoyer) with his first wife Martha - or he could have been Walter, born 1807, son of of Sir Walter's second son Captain Walter Synnot.

Anne Elizabeth died 5 Jan 1821 aged 13 years and 8 months, according to the inscription on her tomb. A picture of her tomb is on the frontispiece of Selina Martin's book. Her father, Sir Walter, died in August 1921, and was buried beside Anny. An account of the events of that time are in Sir Walter's narrative. 
Synnot, Anne Elizabeth (I8278)
 
198

Anne lived for only 65 days. 
Travis, Anne (I12152)
 
199

Anne was single. 
Mossman, Anne (I12661)
 
200

Anne was the daughter of Walter Nugent Esq of Carpenterstown, County Westmeath. The Nugents were another old Anglo-Norman family in 'Kingdom of Meath'.

She was granted administration of her husband Mark Synnott' s estate in Dec 1754. 
Nugent, Anne (I8252)
 

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