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101

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) has 3 children for Walter Synnott and Margaret Furlong - Marcus, James and Nicholas. There were 3 more children: William, Anistace and Catherine, noted in:
David Synnott From Ruination to Recovery: the Synnotts from 1649 to 1881 (Jan 2001).
The latter two are also in:
P. H. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913, unpublished).

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 18:
'Walter of Rosegarland = Margaret dau of James Furlong of Horetown, Esq.'
and of Ballyfarnock. seized in 1626. I Chap. 1 No. 14.'
Reference I: Chancery & Exchequer Inquisitions post mortem
There is a faint pencilled note by Nicholas Joseph Synnott or Pierce Nicholas Netterville Synnott '(Wm p79 83 84)'. This refers to notes on those pages about William Synnot of Rosegarland. But Hore did not include William as a child of Walter and Margaret. William is found only in David Synnott's book From Ruination to Recovery: The Synnotts from 1649 to 1881 ( January 2001), Chart: The Synnotts from 1649 to 1881.

Walter Synnot of Rosegarland was the eldest son.

The Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of  Chancery in Ireland, of the Reign of Charles the First, First to Eighth Year, Inclusive at pages 107-109 sets out the grant by Charles I to Walter Synnot on 3 May 1626 of the castle, town and lands of Rosgarland, and of the towns and lands Ballylanan, Killmurreston, Rospoyle, Clongeen, Loghnagire, Ballyclomackbegg, Kilbreny and Clonfadd, in the county of Wexford.

The grant recites the earlier grant by Queen Elizabeth to Walter's grandfather Richard and letters patent granted by Charles' father James I to Sir Oliver Lambert for the fee simple of Rosgarland. Walter's late father James had agreed to take Oliver's interest for valuable consideration, but James and Walter were concerned that there might be a defect in the letters patent as towns and lands were not named specifically. James I had agreed to grant letters patent for the premises to Walter, but this had not happened. Hence the grant by Charles I to Walter.

The grant is also set out on page 234:
"Grant to Walter Synnot of the castle, town and lands of Rosgarland, and of the lands of Ballylanan, Clongeen, Kilmoristowne, otherwise Kilmurristowne, Rospoile, Kilbreny, Clonfad, Loughnegir, Ballyclomackbeg and other lands in the county of Wexford ; to hold for ever, as of the castle of Dublin, in free and common socage, pursuant to his Majesty's letter, dated 3rd May, 1626 - August 5, 3. [i.e. 3 Aug 1627 - the 3rd year of Charles' reign]

Walter's estates were sequestered in 1641 (Report Record Com. XV. 155). Although records state that he married Margaret Furlong, and they had 5 children, he may also have married a daughter of Sir Richard Masterson, according to "Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland" vol VI (1856). 
Synnott, Walter (I8136)
 
102

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) names Henrietta Thornton’s father as Richard. Henrietta’s father was Henry, not Richard. The County Families of the United Kingdom by Edward Walford (1889 and 1892 editions) refer to Henrietta as ‘5th dau. of the late Henry Thornton, Esq.’

Henry Thornton of Battersea Rise was a close friend (and also a relative) of William Wilberforce, the British anti-slavery crusader. They shared a house in Palace Yard, London until Wilberforce's marriage to Barbara Spooner. Henry was a Calvinist, a banker, philanthropist and Member of Parliament for Southwark. He bought Battersea Rise House in 1790. This was eventually to become the "headquarters" of the Clapham fellowship. Thornton gave away as much as six-sevenths of his income till he married, and after that at least a third of it. Probably his greatest personal efforts were expended in directing the affairs of the Sierra Leone Company, a Clapham-inspired enterprise to establish a colony of freed slaves in West Africa. He was Treasurer of the Church Missionary Society, MP for Southwark, 1782-1814 and, from 1784, partner of London banker, Down, Free and Thornton. 
Thornton, Henry M.P. (I8282)
 
103

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) names her as Marcia Maria. Her name taken to be Mary Marcia:
P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 16:
'Mary Marcia d. August 1869.'
Further evidence of her name being Mary is:
National Archives of Ireland Calendar of Wills and Administrations, 1858-1922 (27 May 1875, page 701):
"The Will of Mary Synnot late of Ballymoyer County Armagh Spinster deceased who died 15 August 1869 at Lurganah in said County ... "

In the 1841 UK census, Mary (25), Maria (20) and Parker (15) Synnot were at Clapham, Surrey with their second cousins Susanna, Maria, Anne and Charlotte Synnot. The ages were probably rounded to the nearest 5 years as was commonly done in the 1841 census.

Her death was reported in the "Hobart Mercury", in Hobart, Tasmania, where she was noted as the eldest daughter of the late Marcus Synnot, Esq., J.P., of Ballymoyer, County Armagh, Ireland.

The Ulster Gazette of 27 Aug 1869 reported the funeral of Miss Synnot, who died at Lurgana House, and her interment in the family vault at Ballymoyer on 19 Aug after funeral. The funeral service was read by her brother-in-law Rev Mr Crawhall. Many family names are mentioned in the report.

Mary's will was proved at Armagh by Marcus Seton Synnot of Ballymoyer, her brother and executor of her will. But that was not the end of the matter.

According to the National Archives of Ireland Calendar of Wills and Administrations, 1858-1922 (27 May 1875, page 701):
"The Will of Mary Synnot late of Ballymoyer County Armagh Spinster deceased who died 15 August 1869 at Lurganah in said County (left unadministered by Marcus Synnot one of then Executors) was proved at the Principal Registry by the oath of Barbara Cecilia Crawhall (Wife of George Crawhall of Nunmunkton County York) Sister of deceased surviving executor. Former Grant District Registry Armagh 1869 folio 63.)"
The effects unadministered were under £5000.

The will

The will of Mary Synnot, as transcribed below, is a fascinating glimpse into a different era, the possessions and value placed on them by the higher echelons of society, and also provides clues to Synnot family relationships.
The disposition of personal assets is set out in detail, and the terms of endearment (or lack of them) also gives clues to relationships within the large family. Of note are some gifts to non-siblings. Miss Houston (Margaret) and Francis Trappes, son of Frances Houston are included, as is a Miss Ferguson. Margaret and Frances' mother was Mary Anne Ferguson, and Frances Trappes' 2nd husband was Joshua Ferguson. Mary's 'cousin Charlie', who received a brooch, was probably Charles Forbes Goodhart Synnot, son of Mary's cousin Robert Synnot M.D. Charles inherited Houston property in Co. Down.

This is the last Will and Testament of me Mary Synnot of Ballymoyer County Armagh, now residing at Lurgannah. Whereas I am possessed of a charge upon the Ballymoyer Estate of five thousand pounds, I wish to divide and bequeath same in the following manner and proportions. I leave and bequeath to my brother Marcus for his life, the sum of one thousand pounds and after his death, my will is, that the thousand pounds so bequeathed shall merge and sink into the Estate of Ballymoyer & cease to be further a charge thereon. To my sister Maria Eliza Miller I leave and bequeath the sum of one hundred pounds to be paid to her as soon as convenient to my Executors after my death. I leave to my Executors hereinafter named whom I constitute Trustees for this present bequest, the sum of one thousand pounds : the interest at the rate of four pounds per cent, per annum to be received by them, or either of them or by any other Trustees or Trustee hereinafter to be appointed by them should they or either of them be unable or unwilling to act, and to be applied in equal shares for the maintenance, education and advancement of my three God daughters, Cecilia Agnes Synnot, Mary Edith Crawford, and Georgiana Constance Synnot during their respective minorities, the principal not to vest in them during their minorities, but to vest and become payable in each case on their severally attaining the age of twenty one years. And I hereby authorise my Trustees or surviving Trustee, should they, or either of them, die or decline to act, then that they or the survivor may appoint a Trustee or Trustees to act instead, and the receipts of my Trustees or surviving Trustee or of such new Trustee or Trustees shall be sufficient discharge for all monies directed to be received under this Trust. To my sisters Barbara Cecilia, and Julia Hewitt, I leave and bequeath the sum of two thousand nine hundred pounds; the interest thereof to be received by them in equal proportions share and share alike. And in the event of the death of either of them, then my Will is that a sum of five hundred pounds, part of the two thousand nine hundred pounds should go to and form a part of the trust fund for my three God daughters hereinbefore mentioned - my intention being that if they should severally attain the age of twenty one years, each should have the full sum of five hundred pounds, subject to the life interest hereby given in the one part of five hundred pounds to my sisters Barbara and Julia, but in case any one of my three God-daughters should die under the age of twenty one years, then my will is that the five hundred pounds, hereby so bequeathed should go to and form part of my residuary Estate. And I further give and bequeath out of the said sum of two thousand nine hundred pounds after the death of either of my two sisters Barbara or Julia- to my brother William Forbes Synnot the sum of five hundred pounds. And to my sister in law Georgiana Thorpe Synnot the sum of five hundred pounds, for her separate use, to be free of any control by her husband, and her own receipt therefor to be a full and sufficient discharge both for half-yearly interest and for the principal whenever same may be paid off. And after the death of the survivor of my sisters Barbara and Julia, then my Will is, that of the fourteen hundred pounds remaining undisposed of the two thousand, nine hundred pounds and of which fourteen hundred pounds, such survivor is to have the interest for her life, my Brother Mark Seton shall take, and receive, one thousand pounds, and the remaining four hundred pounds I give and bequeath to my niece Jane Rosalie Synnot. Provided that as regards the sum of two thousand nine hundred pounds, both as respects the life Estates, and the bequests over of the principal money, so long as it is convenient to the owner of the Ballymoyer Estate, that the principal shall remain a charge thereon, the interest payable in respect thereof, shall be, and remain, at four pounds per cent per annum; and no part of the principal shall be raiseable, without the consent of such owner until the entire shall be divisible, as herein is contained. To my brother Parker George I leave and bequeath my shares in the Midland Great Western Railway. To my dear sister Julia Synnot I leave my Davenport also the Miniature of our Mother and the Ivory fan that belonged to her. To my dear sister Barbara Cecilia Synnot I leave the Miniature of our dear Father set in a Brooch and a Locket in red case containing his hair and initials. To my dear sister Agnes Jane Crawford I leave a Gold Brooch which encloses some of our Fathers hair. To my dear niece Mary Edith Crawford I leave some of my French Boots and my Album. To my dear Nephew Marcus Synnot Crawford I leave my Gold Watch and chain and Longfellow Poems. To my dear brother in law Francis Crawford I leave my copy of the Enclyclopedia Britanica [sic] and my Ivory set of Chessmen. To my dear Brother Mark Seton Synnot I leave my Aneroid and my best Photographic Album. I wish my dear Niece Mary Susanna Synnot to have the Bracelet I bought from Mme Sbiglio. To my dear sister Maria Eliza Miller I leave a Jet Brooch and Bracelets of mine, and one or two of my extracts Books. To my dear Brother Parker George Synnot I leave some of my books and drawings. To my dear sister in law Annie Synnot I leave a Camio Brooch of the Cenci which I lent to her many years since. To my dear sister in law Anne Jane Synnot I leave a Camio Brooch of St Agnes which she gave me, also a pair of Gold Earrings Pompean pattern which my dear Brother Marcus gave me. To my dear cousin Charlie Synnot I leave a painted Brooch of the Cenci which his Mother gave me. To my dear Cousin Susanna Maunsell I leave my copy of Hallams History of Literature of the Middle Ages which I gained as a prize for Essays written when a Member of the Ballymoyer Mutual Improvement Society. To my dear Cousin Maria Augusta Synnot Maunsell I leave my Schiller. To my dear niece Georgiana Constance Synnot I leave some Pearls that belonged to my dear Mother. And to Cecilia Agnes Synnot I leave some Coral and my fan. I wish some of my clothes to be given to my friends Miss Houston and Miss Ferguson. My dear little dog Ary I leave to the care of my sister Julia. I leave all the rest and residue of my property and effects whatsoever to my sisters Barbara and Julia share and share alike, and appointing my brother Marcus and my sister Barbara my Executor and Executrix, and also the first Trustees in and of this my Will, and revoking all previous Wills I declare this to be my last Will and Testament and affix my name in the presence of the two Witnesses whose names are subscribed, and who sign same in my presence, and in the presence of each other this 15 day of July one thousand eight hundred and sixty seven.

Signed and delivered by the said Mary Synnot )
as her last Will and Testament in the presence of ) Mary Synnot (seal)
us, who at the same time, in her presence, and in )
the presence of each other do affix our names as Witnesses )
thereto:-
John Newenham Hoare, Clerk in Holy Orders,
Shelburne Hotel, Dublin.
R. H. Inglis Synnot, of Clapham Common, London S, Civil Engineer


This Will proved on the 6th day of October 1869. See Probate Book Page 
Synnot, Mary Marcia (I8297)
 
104

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) names her as Violette Florence Drower. Her correct name is Florence Violet Drower:
FreeBMD, England & Wales, FreeBMD Birth Index, 1837-1915 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA; Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2006, Florence Violet Drower, reg. Sep 1884, Wandsworth, vol. 1d, p. 580. 
Drower, Florence Violet (I9072)
 
105

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) names him as Edward Drower. His correct name is John Edmund Drower:
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1946MNRAS.106S..29. accessed 18 Jan 2015 Ref OBT064:
John Edmund Drower (27 Mar 1853-18 Jan 1945) was awarded the CBE in 1919. 
Drower, John Edmund CBE (I10409)
 
106

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) records no children for Catherine Sinnott and John Porch. They had at least 3 - Anne Elizabeth, Isabella, Winfield Scott:
Ancestry.com. 1850 United States Federal Census [database on-line], Franklin, Gloucester, New Jersey - Porch, Arnot, Hartman. 
Synnott, Catherine (I10622)
 
107

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) says that Catherine was the eldest daughter of Robert Balentine, MD, LRCS, of London. However, Catherine's marriage entry gives her father as William Ballantine, Esquire, and a witness is Elizabeth Ballantine, possibly her mother. 
Ballantine, William (I8917)
 
108

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) says that Catherine was the eldest daughter of Robert Balentine, MD, LRCS, of London. However, Catherine's marriage entry gives her father as William Ballantine, Esquire, and a witness is Elizabeth Ballantine, possibly her mother. 
Ballantine, Catherine Augusta (I8915)
 
109

Chronicles of County Wexford, being a record of memorable incidents, disasters, social occurrences, and crimes, also, biographies of eminent persons, &c., &c., brought down to the year 1877 (compiled by George Griffiths, printed at the “Watchman” Office, Slaney Place, Enniscorthy):
'James Codde,of Clogh East, born in 1608, married Mary, daughter of William Talbot, Mayor of Wexford. In 1625, he was found seised of one Castle and 120 acres of land in Clogh East, and 60 acres in Churchtown, held by military service. He was a Captain in the Confederate army in 1643.'
and:
'James Codde, of Clogh East, who was killed at Duncannon, left only one child, a daughter surviving him. On the Cromwellian Distribution of 1654, Clogh East fell to Captain Richard Waddy, who very prudently married the heiress of Clogh East, and with her received all the deeds and papers of the original owner. These documents were preserved with religious care, and the last owner, the late good and beloved John Waddy, M.D., LL.D. and J.P., was proud of being able to show legal rights to Clogh Eastcastle, of far older date than any other Cromwellian descended proprietor. He died, justly and deeply lamented, and without issue 15th January, 1875.'
It is likely that this second reference is to the same James Codde. 
Codd, James (I14621)
 
110

Early life – Auckland, Karamu and Te Awamutu

Jack was born in Mt Albert in 1913. The family lived in the Auckland area, with Jack's father William Edmund Sinnott working as an Able-Bodied seaman and later as ship's captain on the Auckland harbour, before enlisting for war service in late 1915. Jack never knew his father, who died in 1917 while fighting in World War 1 in Europe.

Jack was very young when his mother moved from Avondale, Auckland to Te Awamutu. Emily, Gert and Jack stayed with Bert Haddock at the farm at Karamu, while Ellie went with Bill to the McGhies (at Kihikihi).

For Jack, memories of the enforced separation remained for a long time, and he always had more of a bond with Gert than the older two.

Education

Jack went to school at Te Awamutu District High School between 1919 and 1927. His school reports showed him as a good, careful worker but with examination results that did not always reflect his efforts. He was awarded a Certificate of Proficiency (Standard 6) in 1927. He left school in December that year aged 14 to help out the family finances. His brother Bill stayed on at school longer.

Occupation

Much of Jack's life history, as outlined below, is based on a conversation at 737 Bank St, Te Awamutu between Jack and Rex Sinnott on 2 Jan 1996. When this biography was shown to Jack some months later, he indicated that there were some errors, but he did not correct them; at that stage he was already in failing health, and the corrections were never done. It is believed that the errors were minor, and that the general outline is correct.

Jack worked as a paper boy – he started off at 3s 6d per week, doing a round covering Tawhio St, College St to Mutu St in Te Awamutu. Later, got the 'top' round earning 5s 6d. It involved meeting the train at 7:30am (if late, he had to cycle into town, collect papers and do the round in reverse order), cutting open a bundle and counting out 56 papers, and delivering to Alexandra St, College St, Rewi St, ...... ending at Mutu St.

After leaving school, Jack was an apprentice motor mechanic at Ernie Holmes' garage earning 7s 6d per week, later 10s per week. After 5 years, he came out of his time with an “A” Grade Certificate and got paid 5 pounds per week. He stayed 3 more years at that rate. Then he threw in the job, he had had enough. At one stage he was working all weekend with Ernie overhauling Model A Ford trucks used on the Arapuni Dam project (for an extra 1s per hour). Trucks came in on a Friday afternoon needing engine, gearbox, or diff overhaul and were sent out repaired on the following Monday morning. This was about 1931.

Jack then contacted Alf Dobbs at Warkworth, was offered a job, and drove up to Warkworth in his old Essex. He contacted his new boss, as he had no accommodation and was told about Bridge House to go there, then report back. So Jack checked in, returned to the boss, asked for a few days to find his way around Warkworth. He was told to start 8am the following day (Monday). Others at Bridge House included bank clerks – Jack considered them a good lot of people, who got on well. At lunch times, those who ate earlier told Jack what food to avoid when they met him on their way back to work.

It was hard work (as a motor mechanic) but Jack stayed 18 months or so. His mother was on her own in Te Awamutu, and struggling, so Jack resigned and returned to Te Awamutu. While walking along the street he met Steritt, Whitehouse, Spooner(??) who asked what he (Jack) was doing - the answer was "nothing". So was offered a job at Advance Cars as a mechanic, and stayed there until the outbreak of World War 2.

Sport - general

Jack’s passion was hockey, and he represented Waipa and Waikato on several occasions. His success on the hockey filed has since been emulated by his children and grandchildren who have, at various times, represented Waipa, Waikato, Auckland and Central Otago. Jack was also a capable tennis player. With Dick Finn, Jack was instrumental in starting Junior Cricket in Te Awamutu in the late 1950s. He played the occasional round of golf in later years, and was a keen lawn bowler.

Sport – details from newspaper reports

Jack was in the Te Awamutu Tennis Club B Grade team that played the Te Kuiti B Grade team 31 Jan-1 Feb 1931 at Te Awamutu. Jack lost all 3 of his matches - singles, doubles and combined doubles.
He was a half back in the Waipa hockey team that lost to Rodney at Matakana in Jun 1932.
Jack was elected to the ground committee of the Te Awamutu Lawn Tennis Club in Sep 1934.
He was named in the team to play Rodney in the Waipa-Rodney Shield match at Te Awamutu on 3 Jun 1935.
Jack was named as a full back in the Waipa hockey team to compete for the White Horse Cup in the annual Country Week tournament at the Remuera Hockey Grounds, Auckland. He was also in the team at the 1936 and 1937 tournaments held in Auckland.
Jack was in the Waipa hockey team that played in the challenge match for the Norden Cup at Wanganui on 7 Aug 1937.
J. Sinnott was named in the Rodney B team to play the C team as a curtain raiser to the Rodney v Waipa representative teams match on 4 Jun 1938 at Warkworth. He was also in the Rodney B team to play the A team on 11 June. It is not clear why Jack was playing for Rodney.
However, he was back in the Waipa team when it played Rodney on 16 July at the Warkworth Showgrounds. Rodney won 7-1. Jack was one of 4 Waipa players noted by the Rodney and Otamatea Times as being outstanding.
In the doubles final at the Te Awamutu Tennis Club championships in Mar 1939, R. Goodall and A. Ross beat J. Sinnott and E. Holmes 6-3, 1-6, 6-3.
At the annual meeting of the Waipa Hockey Association in Apr 1939, J. H. Sinnott was elected to the grounds committee.
Jack was in the Waipa hockey team to play King Country in May 1939, and to compete in the White Horse Cup competition in Auckland in June.
The official programme for 2 hockey matches at Hobson Park, Auckland on 19 Aug 1939 named Jack (as "A. Sinnatt") as a full back in the Waikato team. Waikato played Auckland in the NZ Challenge Shield Match.

World War 2

On 24 Nov 1939 the Te Awamutu Courier reported: “Word comes that Mr J.H. Sinnott, an Air Force trainee from Te Awamutu, now at the Otahuhu Training Depot, has been successful in securing first place in the recent examinations". On 18 Mar 1940 the Courier noted: "Mr J. Sinnott, of Te Awamutu, who four months ago entered the air service training division, is one of two candidates to qualify as leading aircraftsmen. There were 24 trainees, and Mr Sinnott's success is a meritorious one."

Jack enlisted in the Royal New Zealand Air Force at Hobsonville on 23 Oct 1939, serving as leading aircraftsman and rising to the rank of Flight Sergeant. His trade was described as Group I Fitter II.E: Supervision in the maintenance and assembly of aircraft engines.

Jack was based at Hobsonville, Woodburne, Whenuapai and Gisborne until leaving to serve in the Pacific Islands on 5 Jun 1944 at Esperitu Santo (Vanuata) and Guadalcanal. He was back in New Zealand at Ohakea on 3 Jul 1945 and had short spells there and at Swanson before being transferred to the Reserves on 23 Sep 1945. He continued to serve in the reserve, until his discharge on 18 July 1955.

He was awarded the 1939/45 star, the Pacific star, the 1939/45 War Medal and the New Zealand War Service Medal. He did not qualify for the Defence Medal as he spent only 160 days in a non-operational area.

On enlistment in the Active Reserve on 18 Jul 1950, he was described as height 5 feet 9½ inches, chest 35 inches, hair dark, eyes brown and complexion sallow. He carried out annual training in 1951 and 1952. He later transferred to the General Reserve, upon an unspecified change in his circumstances, and was discharged on 18 Jul 1955.

Mechanic and Garage proprietor

After returning from the war, he got a job with Hodgson Motors which ran bus services. The manager was ex World War 1, and knew of the problems of re adjusting to civilian life, so suggested Jack work part time, knocking off when he wanted to. But Jack never did, he worked 8 hour days from the start. He stayed about 18 months, but found the work tough, working on Hodgson Motors' buses. So he left, and started his own garage, in the same building as brother Bill (an electrician), at their property at 95 Sloane Street. Next door to them beside the garage was a printing workshop run by Ron Wilkinson and, for many years, Dr Riethar’s clinic. Then a Dr Gower took over his practice and was there up until the workshops closed.

Life in Te Awamutu

K.E. Wolfe, a lifetime friend of Bryan Sinnott, recalled Jack as a good bloke – intolerant of fools. He remembered Jack and Natalie Jacombs courting. It is understood that Jack met Natalie, a school teacher in Te Awamutu in the 1940s, when she took her car to his garage. In 1948, they married at All Saints Church, Ponsonby, Auckland.

The house at 12 Downes St was not ready when Jack and Natalie returned from honeymoon, so they stayed with Jack's mother at 4 Downes St until it was. Later, Jack built an extension on, with 2 extra bedrooms. He also built up the rockery along Wallace Terrace, built the shed and garage, and low concrete walls along the Downes St and Wallace Terrace boundaries. Jack maintained the property himself, including rebuilding the laundry when the wooden framing rotted.

For many years Jack collected stamps in current use and packed them for future generations.

Jack and Natalie’s children Rex, Gary and Linley were all born in Te Awamutu and grew up at the Downes Street home.

For many years, the letterbox at 12 Downes St had attached to it a brass plaque with the name "Claymore". Jack's father William Edmund Sinnott was a crew member on the S.S. Claymore on its maiden voyage from Port Glasgow to Auckland in 1902. According to Norma White (Jack's niece) there was a similar plaque at 34 Rewi St, Te Awamutu, home of Jack's brother Bill, and there may also have been a plaque at Jack's mother's old house at Mutu St, Te Awamutu many years ago. To add to the mystery, Linley Downey saw another "Claymore" plaque at the Mangawhai Museum in April 2016. The origin of the plaque is unknown, but could have been made or purchased by William Edmund to commemorate his service on the Claymore.

Post-War service

Jack’s personal Air Force file includes an attestation, on 18 Jul 1950, for the Active Reserve in which he agreed to “serve in the Regular Air Force if called upon in time of war or imminent national danger”. At this time Rex was one year old. Jack was an active member of the Te Awamutu Returned Services Association for many years, and was also involved in the Waipa ex-Air Force Association.

Family holidays

Early family holidays were at Laurenson's Bay, Raglan. Vehicle access was at low tide only. Foot access was a narrow bridge, which Rex and Gary managed to fall off at low tide so they got muddy. Both boys hated walking through the mud, they lifted their feet right up to try to avoid it. Other holidays were taken at Castor Bay at the house of Aunty Pauline's (Pauline Durrieu, a friend of Natalie's mother), Roberts' bach at Takapuna, Booth's house at Takapuna and the family bach at Whangamata Camping Ground.

Retirement

Jack sold his garage business to Bob Newton, and the family moved to Red Beach in early 1961 to run the beach store there. The family returned to Te Awamutu in early 1962, and Jack worked as a storeman/clerk for Auto Electric (owner/manager Cuth Andrews) until retirement.

Jack came out of hockey retirement in 1963 to play in an "Old-Timers" match. Participants were former New Zealand, North Island and representative hockey players. The abilities of the players were previewed by the Te Awamutu Courier which noted: "Jack Sinnott: Shorter on top than previously - should "Jog" through the first half at least."

Jack and Natalie sold the Downes Street house after all three children left home, and moved to a flat in Fraser Street for a short while before buying a 2-bedroom house on a rear section at 63 (later numbered 737) Bank Street. This was close to the croquet and bowling greens, and a short walk from town. They spent their retirement there. Jack's sport was bowls, and Natalie took up croquet, both remaining active club members for many years.

Jack represented Te Awamutu in the National RSA Bowls championships at Hawkes Bay in 1983. He assisted at the Te Awamutu Bowling Club, and was Green Keeper at the adjacent Croquet Club for some years in the 1980s – and received letters of appreciation for his services.

In retirement, Jack and Natalie enjoyed travel – frequent trips to the South Island, several to Australia and Norfolk Island, with a world trip in 1978 which included Spain, UK, Singapore, Malaya, Greece, Switzerland and Hong Kong. Jack was an occasional fossicker for gold on trips to the South Island, and even held a Prospector's Right.

Jack died at Matariki Hospital in Te Awamutu on 2 Jan 1997. He had suffered strokes over a period of a year caused by a brain tumour. He lived at home until he needed care beyond Natalie’s physical capabilities, and spent his last month at Matariki. He was cremated and his ashes buried in the RSA section of the Te Awamutu Cemetery. 
Sinnott, John Herbert (I4)
 
111

General notes

Inglis (as he was known) was most likely named after Sir Robert Harry Inglis, Bart. Sir Robert was a cousin of the Thornton brothers - Robert Thornton was a colleague of his father in the East India Company’s direction. On the death of Henry Thornton (Inglis Synnot's grandfather) in 1815 Sir Robert and his wife became guardians of his nine children, including Inglis's mother Henrietta. Sir Robert and his wife moved into Thornton’s house at Battersea Rise, Clapham Common.

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 13 notes Robert Harry Inglis Synnot as marrying Mary dau of ... Preston.

On the "Historical Boys' Clothing" website at http://histclo.com/bio-synnot.html there is a biography of Robert Henry Inglis Synnot, apparently known aas Inglis. As expected, there is some emphasis on clothing of the period.


Early life

E. M. Forster's book Marianne Thornton 1797-1887: A Domestic Biography (1956) relates Marianne Thornton’s relationships with various friends and family members, including particularly Inglis and Henrietta Synnot, whom she cared for after their mother (Marianne’s sister)’s early death. The lively Inglis and the sometimes-troublesome Henrietta were very different to the conservative Thorntons - perhaps in some small way a throwback to earlier generations of Synnots in Ireland?
Adulthood

In 1859 Inglis went to Canada with the intention of buying some land and staying permanently. He wrote his aunt Marianne Thornton a long letter describing his adventures visiting Niagara Falls. He stayed in Canada until at least 1865 because many of his letters to Marianne discuss the progress of the American Civil War. However, he eventually returned to England and married Mary Preston. It is believed that he settled down to an uneventful life. He apparently became a photographer.

But his profession was as a civil engineer - this is his occupation listed in the 1861 census.
An 1873 obituary by the Institution of Civil Engineers reads:
"MR. ROBERT HARRY INGLIS SYNNOT was born at Clapham in 1837, and was educated at Harrow, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. in 1860. In the same year, having a natural taste for engineering pursuits, he articled himself to Mr. Shelley, Assoc. Inst. C.E.
After the termination of his pupilage, in November, 1863, he continued for a short time to assist Mr. Thos. Ormiston, M. Inst. C.E., Resident Engineer on behalf of Messrs. Lee and Sons, the contractors for the Plymouth Breakwater, with whom the latter part of his time had been spent.
He subsequently became Resident Engineer on the Wrexham, Mold, and Connah's Quay railway, and, under Mr. T. C. Watson, M. Inst.C.E., assisted Messrs. Lee and Sons in carrying out the Amsterdam Sea Canal works.
At the commencement of the year 1872 the desire for more constant employment than the profession at that time afforded led him to embark in the timber trade; but he had scarcely done so when he was seized with an attack of rheumatic fever, which in less than three weeks proved fatal.
He died in London, on the 12th of April, 1872, having been an Associate of the Institution since February the 2nd, 1864."

There is also mention of an 1871 rail journey across America, from New York to San Francisco and return. This was the subject of an article published in the Contemporary Review 17 (1871: Apr) pages 428-442 by R. H. Inglis Synnot entitled"The Pacific Express".

He died at a relatively early age: his memorial inscription at St Mary's Church, Brighstone, Isle of Wight reads: "Robert Harry Inglis Synnot died 12 April 1872 age 34 years". His death notice in The Argus newspaper (Melbourne) noted that he was the only son of the late Richard Walter Synnot of Clapham Common, Esq and grandson of the late Sir Walter Synnot of Ballymoyle, Ireland.

His will was proved at the Central Registry on 13 Jun 1872 by his widow Mary Maria and his cousin Edward Morgan Llewellyn Forster, the executors.

Postscript

Inglis was included as a beneficiary in the will of Lady Mary Inglis, which was proved 19 Dec 1872, but he had died earlier in 1872 
Synnot, Robert Harry Inglis (I8317)
 
112

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Synnot accessed 28 Jul 2014:

George Synnot (1819-1871 ) was one of Victoria's pioneer settlers arriving in the Port Phillip District about 1837 and rising to become a prominent land owner and Geelong businessman.

George Synnot was son of Captain Walter Synnot,[1] a prominent Australian Colonial, one of numerous children. His Brother Monckton Synnot was also a well known squatter and wool brokers. His sister Jane married into the Manifold family.

George Synnot travelled to the Port Phillip District from ... and established the firm, George Synnot & Co., in 1854, taking Thomas Guthrie (1833-1928), into the partnership in 1857.[2] They operated hide and skin stores, wool and grain warehouses in Claire Street Geelong, and also engaged in trade. Synnot is credited with holding one of the first auction sales of wool in Geelong in November 1858.[3] Hawkes Bros. took over the business in 1882. In 1850, Synnot purchased over 18,000 acres under pre-emptive rights in the parishes of Bulban and Wurdi Yowang. With his brother Monkton Synnot, he managed the main station known as 'Station Peak', while the Mouyong property (also known as Mowyong Mayong, Moyong, Mouyong or Bareacres).[4]

Synnot bought the gabled Scottish manse style house 'Fernside' in Geelong at an auction in 1866.[5]

References
[1] "The Children of Walter Synnot Esq" Painting by Joseph Wright of Derby
[2] J. Ann Hone, 'Guthrie, Thomas (1833–1928)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, published in hardcopy 1972, accessed online 20 June 2014
[3] Mary Turner Shaw, 'Synnot, Monckton (1826–1879)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, published in hardcopy 1976, accessed online 20 June 2014
[4] Werribee - The area, its people and heritage. Bill Strong Flickr stream, 'Synnot family' Geelong Historical Records Collection
[5] Gordon Honeycombe thegreatwork accessed online 20/6/2014 
Synnot, George (I8311)
 
113

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timothy_Monckton_Synnot accessed 28 Jul 2014

Timothy Monckton Synnot DSC (born 15 January 1916) was an officer in the Royal Australian Navy. He was a descendant of Monckton Synnot and the older brother of Admiral Anthony Synnot he joined the RAN in 1930 and served on HMAS Hobart in World War II, during which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross and was mentioned in Despatches. He was promoted to Commander in 1951 and retired as a Captain.

After his naval service Synnot settled at Naberoo, near Keith, in South Australia. 
Synnot, Timothy Monckton DSC (I8953)
 
114

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Manifold accessed 28 Jul 2014:

Sir Walter Synnot Manifold (30 March 1849–15 November 1928)[1] was an Australian grazier and politician.

Born in Melbourne, Manifold was the son of Thomas Manifold, the pioneer grazier in the Western District, and a descendant of Sir Walter Synnot.

He was educated at Melbourne Church of England Grammar School and the University of Melbourne and in France and Germany, and qualified as a solicitor in 1875, but never practised. Instead he became a grazier, owning first Sesbania station in northern Queensland from 1876 to 1884 and then Wollaston station near Warrnambool from 1886 until it was sold for soldier settlement in 1914.

In 1885 he married Fanny Maria Smith.

He was elected to the Legislative Council of Victoria for the Western Province in 1901, and held the seat until 1924,[1] as a non-Labor, later Nationalist, member. From 1910 until 1919 he was the unofficial leader of the Legislative Council, and in 1919 was elected President. He was knighted in the 1920 New Year Honours.[2] He retired as President in 1923 due to ill health and in early 1924 resigned his seat. He died four years later at Toorak.

Footnotes
[1] "Manifold, Sir Walter Synnot". re-member: a database of all Victorian MPs since 1851. Parliament of Victoria. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
[2] "Colonial Office List", The Times, 1 January 1920

References
P. H. de Serville, Manifold, Sir Walter Synnot (1849 - 1928), Australian Dictionary of Biography - Online Edition
Obituary, The Times, 16 November 1928
Who Was Who 
Manifold, Sir Walter Synnot (I9208)
 
115

Service in World War 2

In WW2 Raymond served in the Royal Navy on convoys to Murmansk, Russia. He served on ships that were involved in Russian Convoys to Murmansk. Information obtained from his war records indicate that he served on the following ships for the dates as shown:

R.N. (King Alfred) 17 March 1944 to 16 April 1944
Kingfisher 17 April 1944 to 19 September 1944
Victory 17-20 September 1944 to 15th October 1944
Baldur 16th October 1944 –
Baldur DTBR addl skyrack as 1st lt, vice Huguet (to U.K)
“ (Skyrack) DTBR addl in cmd
“ “ DTBR addl as 1st Lt on relief
Victory DTBR to 16th March 1945
“ 17th March 1945 to 26th March 1945
Pembroke IV 27th March 1945 to
Cook 24th October 1945
Philomel 25th October 1945 to 21 Dec 1945
Philomel 22 December 1945
Tui 20 Feb 1946
Philomel 21st February 1946 to 25th February 1946
Philomel 26th Feb 1946 to 11 March 1946

A posthumous application has been made to the New Zealand Defence Force for the award to R. W. Hurley of the Arctic Star.

The Ministry of Defence Medal Office at Gloucester advised in Oct 2013 that the documents held by the family, from which the service list was developed, are likely to be the most retailed documents available. The Office provided comment on the service record:
HMS King Alfred, Kingfisher, Victory and Pembroke IV are all UK based shore establishments. Victory is actually the HMS Victory, Admiral Nelson’s flagship at Trafalgar, although in this instance it is used to describe administrative buildings at Portsmouth.
HMS Baldur was a series of shore establishments on Iceland.
Everything later than Pembroke IV is too late to qualify for the Arctic Star, being after the end of the War in Europe.
HMT (His Majesty’s Trawler) Skyrack was based at Reykjavik during the war, as a ‘coast-watching vessel’. The Office does not hold a record of her movements.
DTBR stands for “date to be recorded”. This has not been done at a later date, as was the intention, and may make assessment for the Arctic Star a little difficult.

Raymond would occasionally talk to family members about his participation in Russian Convoys to Murmansk in ships called Corvettes and that he experienced some particularly unpleasant situations. Some of those experiences related to the rescue of sailors after the attack and sinking of their ships in freezing arctic waters covered in oil and debris.

The history of his naval service continues to be researched by his family (as at Jan 2014).

Post-war

On 26 Jan 1950 Raymond left England on the ship Rangitane bound for Auckland. He gave his last UK address as Salisbury House, E.C.2, and his occupation as corset manufacturer.

With brother Desmond, Raymond started the Hurley Bendon Lingerie business. The 1960 Tamaki electoral roll lists Raymond Watson Hurley of 4 Edmund St, manufacturer. 
Hurley, Raymond Watson (I2192)
 
116

The 58th Regiment

William Howell came to New Zealand with the 58th Regiment. In "Discharged in New Zealand" (by Hugh and Lyn Hughes), entry 2685 is Private William Howell, born in Kent, occupation labourer. He enlisted on 1st September 1851, aged 21. William embarked from Cowes on the ship Egmont on 7th March 1854, and arrived at Auckland on 26th June 1854. His military service ended when he took discharge on 31st October 1858, which cost him ten pounds.

A history of the 58th Regiment by Gurney records that the First New Zealand war came to an end in 1847, and the next ten years was spent peacefully by the 58th in New Zealand. For the greater part, headquarters were in Auckland. In 1851 and 1858 the regiment saved the city from being destroyed by fire.

Gurney says that "On 17 Nov 1858, the 58th embarked for England" and "Only 16 officers and 194 other ranks came home, over one thousand having settled as colonists in the country which, after 14 years of service, they had come to regard as their own." Gurney notes further that "Before they left, over three hundred officers and privates elected to settle in the colony and were duly discharged, and there must be a large number of their descendants now living in the country. When the Regiment left New Zealand, not less than one eighth of the population of Auckland was composed of men who had served in the Regiment."

Upper Waiwera

William Howell, settler, is mentioned in "A Return of the Freeholders of NZ - October 1882" as a landowner:
Rodney County, 71 acres, 35 pounds value
Waitemata County, 60 acres, 45 pounds value
Electoral rolls from 1865 describe him as a settler.
Daughter Mary's 1887 marriage entry gives William's occupation as farmer.
A Death notice in NZ Herald on 30 March 1905 reads:
HOWELL - On March 18, William Howell, of Upper Waiwera, late of H.M. 58th Regiment; aged 82.
An article in the NZ Herald on 31 Mar 1905 says that a large number of his old friends gathered to pay their last respects.
William's burial inscription at Silverdale Cemetery reads "...who died March 18, 1905 aged 81. His children shall have a place of refuge. Prov XIV 20" 
Howell, William (I1516)
 
117

The Gentleman’s Magazine, (Jan-Jun 1839) at page 592 says:
'In 1737 Mr Devereux returned to Ireland, where, shortly after, he married a celebrated beauty, his cousin Mary Esmonde ...'
James' mother Lucy was a daughter of Sir Laurence Esmonde, so Mary's father Mark Esmonde must have been a son of Sir Laurence.
The magazine describes the friendship between James and Lord Chesterfield, Lord Lieutenant, and the services rendered by James to his friend. 
Devereux, James (I11505)
 
118

The London Gazette, London of 21 August 1883 noted that, on 22 Aug 1883, Captain Mark Seton Synnot resigned his Commission in the 3rd Battalion, Princess Victoria's (Royal Irish Fusiliers). He was also a Captain in the Armagh Light Infantry, it appears that this was a different body from the Royal Irish Fusiliers.

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 15:
'Mark Seton late of Ballymoyer. Formerly Capt. Armagh Lt. Inft. b. 1847 d. unmd. 16 Aug 1901
On his death he was succeeded by his eldest sister Mary Susanna.'

A birth notice in the Liverpool Mercury of 5 Nov 1847 advises the birth of a son on 29 Oct at Merrion Square South, to the wife of Mark Seton Synnot of Abercrombie Square.

Mark Seton Synnot was Justice of the Peace of Ballymoyer and formerly a Captain of the Armagh Light Infantry. He died on 16 Aug 1901 without heirs.

On 17 Feb 17, 1902, following the death of Mark Seton Synnott in 1901, the Synnott arms ("sine macula") were combined with the Hart family arms and the family name changed to Hart-Synnott of Ballymoyer. Mark's sister Mary Susanna had married Arthur Fitzroy Hart in 1868, and another sister Charlotte Augusta had married Reginald Hart in 1872. 
Synnot, Captain Mark Seton (I9052)
 
119

The London Gazette of 10 May 1864 advised Richard's appointment as a Cornet in the 1st Dragoon Guards, by purchase, replacing William Watt, who transferred to the 17th Lancers.

The same gazette of 4 May 1869 noted Richards appointment as Lieutenant in the 1st Dragoons, by purchase, replacing John Taylor Winnington who retired. and on 23 Jan 1874, the Gazette advised that Richard had been appointed Captain in the 1st Regiment of Dragoon Guards on 21 Jan 1874, replacing A. Mesham who had retired.

Richard gained the rank of Captain in the service of the 1st Royal Dragoons. He held the office of Justice of the Peace (J.P.) for County Kildare and also for County Clare. In 1890 he was High Sheriff of County Kildare. He lived at Oakly Park, County Kildare and at Blackwater, County Clare.

In the Gazette, London of 27 March 1877, the War Office announced the retirement from Service of Captain Richard Mark Synnot Maunsell of the 1st Dragoons, receiving the value of his Commission.

In addition to these responsibilities, Richard was also the Vice Chairman of the Celbridge Poor Law Union and a member of the Kildare Street Club. Being involved with what was the rudimentary beginnings of the modern welfare system was an important symbol of authority for this gentry class. The Kildare Street Club was the premier gentleman's club in Ireland. 
Maunsell, Richard Mark Synnot (I8289)
 
120

The London Gazette of 22 June 1869 advised that on 23 Jun 1869 Charles Synnot Johnstone, Gent, was appointed Cornet in the 7th Dragoon Guards, replacing Rees.

The same gazette, on 19 September 1871, noted that Charles was permitted to retire from the Service on 20 Sep 1871, by sale of his Commission.

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 16:
'Chas Synnot Johnstone of D.G's'
Died at Grove House Clapham 7 June 1838.
D.G's is taken to mean Dragoon Guards.
The death date and place are incorrect - they relate to Charles' grandfather Mark Synnot of Monasteroris House, Kings Co. 
Johnstone, Charles Synnot (I10431)
 
121

The London Gazette of 26 January 1886 advised that Charles Forbes Goodhart Synnot was subject to a Receiving Order under the Bankruptcy Act 1883, at the Pembrock Dock Court on 22 Jan 1886. The date of the public examination was set down for 3 Feb 1886 at 11:45am.

The Gazette of 29 January 1886 notified the first meeting on Charles' indebtedness under the Bankruptcy Act 1883 - it was was set down to be held at the Gate House Hotel, Tenby on 6 Feb 1886 at 12 noon. 
Synnot, Charles Forbes Goodheart (I9087)
 
122

The London Gazette, of 11 April 1902 recorded that on 17 Feb 1902 at Whitehall, London, Arthur FitzRoy Hart was granted, by the King, a Royal licence, with his wife Mary Susanna, to use the name 'Synnot' after 'Hart'. Arthur was authorised to bear the arms of Synnot quarterly with his own family arms, and the surname and arms could be taken, borne and used by the issue of their marriage. The arms were first to be duly exemplified according to the laws of arms and recorded in the college of Arms, otherwise the Royal licence and permission would be void and of no effect.

P. Hore Synnott Pedigree (1913), page 15:
'Mary Susanna = Maj. Genl. Arthur Fitzroy Hart, b. 4 May 1844 md. 22 Dec 1868.'
There is also a handwritten note by Nicholas Joseph Synnott or Pierce Nicholas Netterville Synnott: 'CB CMG' (referring to Maj. Gen. Hart).

Burke's Irish Family Records (1976) gives Arthur’s date of death as 20 April 1910. He died on 29 April 1910:
Beatrice M. Hart-Synnot (ed), Letters of Major-General Fitzroy Hart-Synnot C.B., C.M.G. (Edward Arnold, London, 1912) at page 320 gives the date, and describes the circumstances of his death.

The Cheltenham Looker-On of 14 May 1910 has an obituary of Arthur Hart-Synnot, headed 'The Services'. It advises that he died in London after an operation. He was son of the late Lieut.-General Hart, and assumed the additional surname of Synnot by Royal Licence in 1902.

The Gloucestershire Echo of 14 Jun 1910 reported at page 3:
'General A. F. Hart-Synnot
The late Major-General Arthur Fitzroy Hart-Synnot, of Ballymoyer, Whitecross, Co. Armagh, an old Cheltonian, left estate in the United Kingdom valued at £81 5s 5d.' 
Hart-Synnot, Major-General Arthur Fitzroy C.B., C.B.E. (I9047)
 
123

The Reece and the Pee Families from Shropshire (Alison Honeyfield (compiler), 1997) has a note from Stephanie Cullen:
'I met Thelma Haddock in 1990. She told me a most interesting story of her early life. She was the daughter of Blanche Pee and William Heald. I do not known where Thelma was born but, in 1916, the family was living in Opotiki. A second daughter (third child) was born there. Unfortunately, Blanche died in childbirth. Thelma had some faint memories of that time - she would have been three years old at the time. She recalled sitting with an old lady, on the steps leading up to the front door. Although she had no further contact with Opotiki, Thelma was always aware that 'Granny Reece' who lived there was part of the family and she believed that 'Granny' was the old lady she remembered. Shortly after his wife's death, William Heald joined the NZ forces and went overseas. He put his children in an orphanage, although the baby may have been in the care of a family member. She played happily with a little girl who lived nearby. They had a special friendship and it was not until many years later that Thelma learned that this 'friend' was actually her younger sister, born in Opotiki in 1916.' 
Heald, Thelma (I1120)
 
124

The Reece and the Pee Families from Shropshire (Alison Honeyfield (compiler), 1997) notes:
'After Hilda's husband, Herbert Greenwood, left her and moved south, she and the children lived with Violet in two detached rooms at the back of the Maternity Home in Otahuhu. It is believed that Hilda did most of the housework, cooking and washing.'

There is a rather more graphic story that has been handed down in the family: Herbert abandoned Hilda and their four children Muriel, Daisy, Alfred and George in Auckland in the depression and ended up in Australia in a bigamous relationship. Hilda was left to fend for herself and would not have survived without the assistance of the Salvation Army. For some time Hilda lived with her sister, Violet, in two detached rooms at the back of the Maternity Home for Unmarried Mothers that Violet owned and operated in Otahuhu, Auckland. Hilda and Violet’s sister, Daisy established the home but, when Daisy married James Russell in 1923, Violet took it over. Heather says that Violet used Hilda as a ‘slave’ to do all the housework, cooking and washing, in return for food and board.

Hilda and her family lived near a Maori community in Otahuhu, Auckland. The community, realising how much Hilda was struggling financially, offered to adopt Daisy. 
Pee, Hilda (I12883)
 
125

The Reece and the Pee Families from Shropshire (Alison Honeyfield (compiler), 1997) notes: 'Blanche died at Opotiki after the birth of her third child and is buried in the Opotiki Cemetery. In his sorrow, William placed his three small children in an orphanage and enlisted in the New Zealand Army. On his return he remarried, but the youngest of his children had been adopted. In Opotiki, Blanche's family was known to her Reece relations.' 
Pee, Blanche (I14893)
 
126

This biography is, apart from the paragraph relating a family story, a report prepared by Alan Hall of Pirongia, and provided to Rex Sinnott by Jan Kilham on 22 June 2015.

Alfred Charles Bluck             1878-1915

Captain Alfred Charles Bluck (Service No. 13/281), the son of Alfred and Matilda Bluck, was born at Pukekohe on 20 December 1878, but lived a part of his childhood in Te Awamutu where his father was the stationmaster between 1881 and 1883. Later his family returned to Buckland, near Pukekohe, but in January 1901, when he married Ethel Harper of Pirongia, Charles, or Charlie as he was known in the family, was farming near Pirongia where he continued to live until at least 1911. By 1914, however, the Bluck family had moved to a property closer to Te Awamutu.

For a number of years, Charles Bluck was a territorial volunteer in the 4th Waikato Mounted Rifles. He was commissioned in 1906 and promoted to Captain in 1912. On 17 August 1914,he was appointed Captain of the 4th Waikato Squadron of the Auckland Mounted Rifles in the NZ Mounted Rifles Brigade.

After initial training in Auckland from mid-August, the Auckland Mounted Rifles embarked for overseas,with their horses, on 10 October 1914, travelling on HMNZT Star of India and HMNZT Waimana,to Wellington, where they joined a large New Zealand convoy transporting the main body of the NZEF that left Wellington for Egypt on 16 October. At Albany, Western Australia, the New Zealand ships joined an Australian flotilla and sailed together via the Suez Canal to Alexandria, Egypt, where they disembarked on 3 December.   

Intensive training and conditioning followed at Zeitoun near Cairo until the commencement of the Dardanelles campaign in late April.

The Mounted Rifles were held in reserve during the initial Gallipoli landings, but on 12 May they were landed as conventional infantry at Anzac Cove to relieve the British Naval Brigade on Walker’s Gully and Russell’s Top. It was there, late in the morning of 18 May 1915, that Captain Charles Bluck and Sergeant-Major Joseph Marr were both killed in action by sniper fire as they reconnoitred Walker’s Ridge. The two men were buried side-by-side. Captain Bluck was 36 years old.

There is a family story, so far unverified, about Charles' death. A daughter of Charles' sister Annie married Sid Wallingford, who was an officer in the NZ Air Force and flew Catalina flying boats and various other planes in WW2. Sid's father was a major in the NZ army in WW1 and also served at Gallipoli. Major Wallingford was apparently an excellent shot with a rifle. At Gallipoli, after Charlie Bluck was shot in the head and killed by a Turkish sniper, Major Wallingford in return located, shot and killed the sniper.

Lt. Col. C.E. Mackesy, Commander of the Auckland Squadron, later wrote to Ethel Bluck: “I had the highest opinion of his sturdy, honest character and admired Captain Bluck very much. He was a most conscientious, painstaking, keen officer. His loss to me was very great indeed. I had left him only 15 minutes before he was struck down. We buried him not far from where he fell, on the slopes of the hill overlooking the deep blue sea, with the island of Imbros for a background.”

Captain Alfred Charles Bluck is commemorated at the Walkers Ridge Cemetery, Anzac, Turkey.

His medals, the 1914-15 Star, British War Medal and Victory Medal, together with a scroll and memorial plaque, were forwarded to Ethel Bluck who raised their twin sons in Te Awamutu.

On 12 November 1916, a memorial service was held at St John’s Church, Te Awamutu, at which an altar cross was unveiled by Bishop Cowie in memory of Alfred Charles Bluck. The service followed a parade from the town hall and the packed congregation included soldiers who had been evacuated from Gallipoli.

13/281 Captain Alfred Charles Bluck
Auckland Mounted Rifles

Listed  in the Waipa Post List as:                            A.C.  Bluck
 
Bluck, Alfred Charles (I1940)
 
127

This biography was compiled from the MacDonald Dictionary of Canterbury Biographies, an obituary in The Press on Tuesday 16 Jun 16 1908 and an obituary in the Star on 16 June 1908 .

William Robert Mitchell was born in 1830 in England. He was christened at All Saints, London on 26 May 1833, the same day as his younger sister Mary. He left England when he was twenty-two years of age, and went to Australia, arriving in Melbourne in October 1852. For two years he tried his luck on the Victorian goldfields. He saw life there in its most picturesque days. He was present at the riots that took place when the Eureka Stockade was rushed by the miners, and he saw the burning of Bentley’s Hotel.

When Cobb & Co was established, in 1855, Mr Mitchell found that an entirely new career had been opened up to him. He was one of the first members of the firm’s staff, being appointed agent at Mary Borough, Ararat and Pleasant Creek in Victoria. When the great rush to Ararat took place in 1857, he was appointed manager of the firm for that district, and was for several years engaged in putting on lines of coaches to the various goldfields.
He took up residence in the small but rising township. He was elected chairman of the municipality, and was appointed a justice of the peace. In 1861 he was elected chairman of the Ararat Road Board, the first Board established under the Victorian Road Board Act of 1861. He took an active interest in the work of fire brigades, and, having organised the fire brigade in the district, was elected the first president.

In 1862 he left Victoria and came to New Zealand with Mr Lee Cole. He took horses and coaching plant for Cobb and Co to Dunedin. In 1862 he was appointed manager of that firm in New Zealand, whose head office was in Dunedin. After arranging several routes – north, south, east and west – before roads were made or accommodation houses provided, he visited Canterbury. He found the mail services were being worked in the slow-going manner of those times, when a journey to Timaru took three days, to Oamaru five, and the scarcely ever attempted through journey to Dunedin occupied seven days.

Determined to extend the operations of his firm to Canterbury, upon his return to Otago he reported so favourably upon the prospects that shortly afterwards, in 1865, when the Coles started Cobb & Co in Canterbury, he became manager. He retained that position, occupying an office on the site where the Grain Agency Company’s Buildings now stand, until he purchased the business, in connection with Mr Burton, in 1859. He was at one a partner with Mr A. G. Howland in the American Carriage Factory, and took part in the affairs of other businesses in Christchurch, notably the Kaiapoi Woollen Company and Whitcombe and Tombs, being a director of both those concerns.

After Lee Cole left for America, Cobb & Co’s West coast mail contract was taken over by William Mitchell and W.H. Burton in February 1870. William drove a buggy and pair over the Christchurch/Akaroa Road in January 1871. This was a trial trip preliminary to Mitchell and Burton starting the Christchurch Akaroa coach service. The first coach was driven by Burton over the route in February 1872. The road along Lake Forsythe was still very bad. At a dinner given on the road the Superintendent (Rolleston) and R.H. Rhodes were present and Mitchell in a speech said he was probably the only man present who had helped Cobb to lay out coaching routes in Australia. Cassidy and Clarke took over the West Coast service in 1873. The goodwill included the Cass Hotel and the changing places for horses.

From almost the first day that he set foot in Christchurch, William associated himself with the city’s affairs. He was an officer of the Christchurch Fire Brigade in July 1868. He was one of the original promoters who established the Fire Police and he took a very keen interest in it. He held the position of Captain for some time and was appointed as a fire inspector.

As an organiser of demonstrations & processions, William was always to the fore, and in conjunction with Superintendent Harris and Mr R. C. Bishop, he acted on numerous public occasions as Marshal.
In the cause of charity and benevolence, he gave freely of his time and money. Whenever any organisation was started for charitable or benevolent purposes, William was sure to be called on to fill the office of honorary secretary or honorary treasurer, and upon him in those capacities devolved the lion’s share of the work. He was one of the Committee who organised the welcome to the Duke of Edinburgh in 1869.

He was a very active member of various committees which had for their object the entertainment of the public. One of these was the Popular Amusements Assoc, which organised sports in Latimer Square July 71. He was musical and took part in the musical life of Christchurch. He was one of the judges of vocal solos at a concert, the other two being J. B. Stansell and Richard Packer, both traders of music in Christchurch.

William was elected to the East Christchurch School Committee October 1874. He left for a trip to England in May 1876 and was given a reception and a presentation. He resigned his post of Fire Inspector and M.E. Alport succeeded him. It is possible that he met his sister Emma Pheney and her children in England and persuaded them to return to New Zealand.

He returned in January 1877 and he and W.W. Wood, also a passenger were quarantined in Auckland because of a suspected smallpox case. He was welcomed back by the Fire Police.

He was secretary and a performing member of the Orchestral Society, under the baton of Colonel Lean, treasurer of the Benevolent Association until Charitable Aid Boards were established, secretary to the first International Exhibition in New Zealand, held in Christchurch in 1882 - he was the official agent of New Zealand, and its success was due in a large degree to his energy.

He was treasurer to the Canterbury A & P Association in 1890, auditor of the Canterbury Jubilee Exhibition in 1900, and treasurer of the Queensland, Wairarapa Disaster, and Hawkes Bay Relief Funds. He was also treasurer of the Jubilee Home Fund, and a member of the committee of the Rhodes Convalescent Home.

As a Freemason, Mr Mitchell was a long-time member of the Lodge St. Augustine, and for a number of years he acted as District Grand Secretary of the District Grand Lodge of Canterbury, and was District Grand Treasurer until 1900.

In later years William lived a retired life, his health not permitting him to take part in any public affairs.

William passed away at his house at Avondale, Christchurch on 15 June 1908. His wife died about 12 years earlier and they left no children. Frances Pople Pheney (William's eldest niece) was the executor of his will. He bequested 250 pounds to Frances' sister Emma, 250 pounds to Robert Francis Vaughan Pheney, the rest to Frances Pople Pheney. An affidavit by Frances Pheney indicates the estate was worth less than 10,000 pounds. 
Mitchell, William Robert (I1701)
 
128

Transcription of excerpts from  Rex Lange's memoirs "From plough to pulpit" :

ANCESTORS ON MY MOTHER'S SIDE

Page14:

Not nearly as much is known, or has been documented about this side of the family,but we have the names and a few details about some of them, going back to the early 1770's.
 
John Dilworth (born 1720) and his wife Mary, lived in Donaghmore, County Tyrone, Ireland. They were two of my great, great, great, great Grandparents. They had four sons and a daughter:Walter, John, George, James and Catherine.
 
This John (born 1775) and his wife Anne, became two of my great, great, great Grandparents. They had a family of three sons and a daughter: George, James, John and Sarah.
 
This third John Dilworth (born 1798) married Mary Bell (born 1789).  Both were of Donaghmore, County Tyrone, and became my great, great Grandparents. Their family consisted of James, Anne, Andrew, Eleanor, Thomas, Ursula and Esther. Anne married a William Watt and remained in Ireland, Ursula became Mrs Walker and lived in Utah, U.S.A. and Esther married George Evans and they lived in Idaho, U.S.A.
 
Page15:
 
The other three came to N.Z. James to become a wealthy landowner in Auckland,Andrew a farmer at Waitakere, West Auckland, and to Eleanor fell the great honour of becoming one of my great grandmothers.
 
Eleanor (born 1827) married Thomas Mossman in Dungannon, Ireland.  They, with James and William, emigrated to Canada, perhaps because of the Irish potato famine.  Their other children were born in Canada. Quoting from the 'Reminiscences' of my great Uncle Harry: "Thomas and Eleanor accepted a great land offer from Canada, namely 220 acres, at a reasonable price. Imagine the stupidity, or generosity, when I say that when they came away from there about 19th October 1866 by the good ship Winterhur,they took no records of any kind, from their neighbour, who took over the property. They both, especially father, I think, considered it would have been an insult to ask a neighbour for anything in writing. When I say that this property is now the city of Winnipeg, you will be surprised.  During my middle age I re-opened the subject,addressing it to the Mayor of the city, but, of course, nothing could be done about it."
 
The eldest son, James, had come to N.Z. a couple of years earlier.  Encouraged to come to Auckland by Eleanor's brother James Dilworth, they emigrated with their other five children: Thomas, William, Isabella, Henry and Mary Esther, later to become my grandmother. (See Appendix 7 concerning James Dilworth and Appendix 8 for further information concerning Eleanor Mossman’s sisters and brothers.) 
Lange, Frank Rex Watt (I11134)
 
129

With grateful acknowledgements to Gerald, Kathleen, Bryan, and Gordon Richardson, USA, and Chrissie Macken of Melbourne, who provided the information on which much of this biography is based.

Charles Leo Richardson was born 18 October 1875 at 13 Spring St, La Trobe Ward, District of South Melbourne, in the Colony of Victoria (Australia). The family moved to Adelaide, in the Colony of South Australia and in 1883, he travelled with his parents and four siblings (plus sister Millicent who was born at sea) on the ship Hesperus from Adelaide to London. In 1886, the family moved back to Adelaide and then in 1893 travelled to New Zealand for a year. From about 1898 up until Charles’ service in the Boer War, his parents were residing in Brisbane in the Colony of Queensland, Australia. Nothing else is known of his childhood.

He enlisted for a six month tour of duty on 27 March 1901 in the British Army or in the Australian Colonial Army and fought in the 1899-1902 Boer War, in the 1st Battalion, 1st Scottish Horse Regiment. The 1st and 2nd Scottish Horse were formed from Australian volunteers plus drafts from Scotland and South Africa. For action at the Battle of Moedwill on 8 October 1901, Trooper Richardson was promoted to Corporal. After his completion of service in the Boer War on 17 October 1901, Charles was known to have been living in Johannesburg and working as an accountant for the Municipal Treasury. Additionally, he joined the Rand Rifles, a South African organization established to help defend Johannesburg and surrounding posts during the end of the War and the end of total hostilities. He was a Private, awarded an efficiency certificate on 7 Jan 1902, and discharged on 25 July that same year. While in South Africa, he met Maud Winifred Peel (b: 15 Aug 1879), believed to have been a nurse from the Sub-district of West Ham, County of Essex, England. They married on 18 January 1905 at All Saints in the Parish of Booysens, Diocese of Pretoria, Charles did not want to return to Australia (the reason is not known) and they did not want to go to England. Instead, in October 1906, they travelled from South Africa to Canada.

Charles and Maud lived in Edmonton, Province of Alberta, Canada. They had three children there: Jocelyn Peel (b: 10 Mar 1908, Desmond Peel (b: 19 Aug 1909), and Edythe Peel (b: 17 May 1911). He was a chartered accountant and his first known work was from 1908 to 1914 as Auditor for the city of Edmonton. In 1914 he was appointed Deputy Commissioner of Finance. He became a member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Alberta (ICAA) and in 1914 became its 4th President.

“While in Canada, Charles Richardson practised accounting from an Edmonton base. On the occasion of its 75th anniversary, the institute published a history that described Richardson as having been ‘a member of the Transvaal Society of Accountants Incorporated.’ Wherever that information came from, it was probably jocular code that meant he was a veteran of the Boer War and had fought in the Transvaal theatre of that conflict. Richardson was elected president of the Alberta Institute [Institute of Chartered Accountants of Alberta (ICAA)] in 1914. He was appointed deputy commissioner of finance for the City of Edmonton, later resigning to go into public practice.” [1]

“Once the agreement with the University of Alberta was in effect, successful [accounting] students were only admitted to the institute with the approval of the university Senate and an affirmative vote in council. The agreement also provided that council would be represented on the Senate. The institute’s [ICAA] first representative on the university Senate was president Charles Richardson.” [2]

“At a June 1914 meeting of the institute, it was moved by Mr. Richardson, seconded by Mr. E.D.C. Thomson, that this institute place itself on record as opposed to the admission of women at the present time.” [3]

“Once membership in the Alberta Institute topped 40, the province could appoint two representatives to the Dominion Association’s [of Chartered Accountants] Council. The province reached that milestone in 1915, and named Charles Richardson and James Sutherland as Dominion representatives.” [4]

“In his 1923-24 report, for example, Cecil Race wrote that a number of members had recently moved to the United States, becoming non-resident members.” [5]

The following year he joined the Macintosh & Hyde Accounting Firm as a chartered accountant and manager. On 4 January 1916, Charles was affiliated with the Canadian Army, having a Certificate of Military Qualification as a Provisional Lieutenant serving in the infantry branch within an unknown unit of the 101st Regiment of the Edmonton Fusiliers. He did not serve overseas in WWI. In 1916, Charles was the first owner of the large house at 12626-104 Avenue. In 1917, he joined the accountancy firm of Harvey, Richardson, Cole and Robertson of which he was partner/manager. In July 1918, he became a life member of the Canadian Red Cross Society. He was the founder and first president in 1921 of the Mayfair Golf and Country Club which officially opened on 27 May 1922. The Royal Mayfair has since become one of Canada’s premier Golf and Country clubs.

On 10 June 1923, Charles immigrated to Los Angeles, California, United States in preparation for the rest of the family who arrived to the U.S. on 12 Sep 1923. On 17 Mar 1925, in Los Angeles, Charles signed a Declaration of Intention to become a naturalised USA citizen. On 26 July 1935, Maud, Jocelyn, Desmond, and Edythe officially became U.S. citizens.

Charles left Canada because of financial embarrassment. He had to sell his beautiful house as a result of financial misadventure according to Kathy Richardson who heard a version of this story from her mother Marie (wife of Desmond).

Maud Richardson was conscious of her position in society and let it be understood that she was the granddaughter of Sir Robert Peel (not true) so she must have felt the reversal in family fortunes very keenly. Maud was a member of the Daughters of the British Empire until her death in 1964.

In Los Angeles, California, Charles established his own business as a Certified Public Accountant. He seemed to be doing well with no obvious financial problems. He died at the age of 85 on 22 Feb 1960 in Los Angeles. Maud soon moved to Philadelphia to be with her eldest daughter, Jocelyn, and died on 14 Sep 1964 also at the age of 85 in Philadelphia.

Footnotes 1-5 McKenzie-Brown, Peter In Balance: An Account of Alberta’s CA Profession 1910-2000 (13 August 2006).

Note: CLR’s financial embarrassment more than likely was his own investment mistake. Based on ICAA and Mayfair Golf and Country Club, there is no mention of any public involvement in any legal or criminal wrongdoing. It was noted that several founding CAs from the ICAA had departed Canada for the USA in 1923 for better economic opportunities. 
Richardson, Charles Leo (I3251)
 
130

ANNE QUALTROUGH (1849-1908) - quiet and kindly lady

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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LEAST of all is known about ANNE the third daughter. She remained single and following the death of her parents, when she would have been about 32, she moved into the city to be with her sister Emily, a professional nurse.

They shared a small house in Cobden Street, Newton, then a residential part of Auckland, along Karangahape Road West. Nieces recall that “Aunt Annie” was similar in looks and disposition to the younger, lovable Emily and was very kind to them when they came from the country to visit their aunts.

Emily and Annie didn’t have much to come and go on but Annie would set the table beautifully for afternoon tea, even if it were only a simple one of bread and butter, recalled one niece, the late Mrs Elsie Smith, who was Tom Qualtrough’s second daughter. The kind-hearted Annie would sprinkle sugar on the children’s bread and butter to make it more palatable to young taste buds.

Annie had a skin problem of some sort and never went out in public without wearing a hat fitted with a short veil. Perhaps self-consciousness heightened a natural reserve, and possibly she was not robust for she died in 1908 at the early age of 59. She too, is interred at Pakuranga in the family plot. [(See Genealogical Chart 4).] 
Qualtrough, Anne (I496)
 
131

CATHERINE QUALTROUGH (1844-1872) – the girl they left behind

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
--------------------
OF ALL the Qualtrough children CATHERINE is the one who captures the imagination most. The second daughter, she was only 15 when her parents made their momentous decision to emigrate to the other side of the world.

She lived with her aunt and uncle, Jane and John Hudgeon, at Ballakillowey. Just why, as previously commented upon, we are not sure, but it is certain that family ties were strong as the poignancy of the following letter shows. It was written by Catherine to her parents on January 21, 1860.

My Dear Father and Dear Mother,

We received the welcome news of your safe arrival (in N.Z.) 10 of January (i.e. nearly three months later) and I think you can better imagine than I can describe the feelings of our minds after half a year of fear and great anxiety. I received your paper and Aunt Betty the letter the same day. The sight of the paper brought tears into our eyes and joy into our hearts. We were delighted to hear of your good health and spirits and hope this letter will find you in the same it leaves us all at present, except that we are cast down often when we think of the distance between us, but we hope it all will be for the best. I suppose if you give encouragement to us we will be out in New Zealand yet.

It has been a very dry summer and a very stormy winter this last year. When you write I hope you will tell us all particulars. Ned Gale has shifted to Baldwin and Johnny to Strandhall as Gawne has let most of the land. The .......... is gone but .......... is in yet. William Walker is in part and Johnny Gale in the rest of the place.

Many enquiries has been made for you and many good wishes and many prayers been sent unto the Throne of God on your behalf.

We hope you will not forget us as you are always in our thoughts both asleep and awake. Aunt Jane was very uneasy about you as she was often dreaming about you. When we will receive your next letter we will write you. Do not forget to remember me often to the little ones. Tell them I will never forget them. Remember us all to James and Willie. Tell Betsy to write. I hope Richard and Anne and Thomas will be going to work or else to school. Let me know when you write whether Sarah and Emily is ever speaking of me.

When I will write again I will tell you all the news as my paper is nearly filled. With my kind love to my dear brothers and sisters, I remain, my dear parents, your affectionate and dutiful daughter,

Catherine

In 1868 at the age of 24 Catherine married James Kinley. She had three children – Jane, John James and Thomas – then, tragically, died in 1873 aged 29.

Her daughter married John Harrison and produced four daughters; John James Kinley married and had two sons; Thomas Kinley drowned in 1896 while still a bachelor.

Catherine is buried in the Rushen churchyard, Isle of Man.

Poor little Catherine, reaching out in her imagination thousands of miles across oceans to her loved ones, never saw them again after their departure from the Isle of Man.

But her letter to them came alive touchingly when it was read aloud at our Family Reunion by her great-great-granddaughter, Violet Corlett, of Douglas, Isle of Man, in her soft Manx accent that turned back the pages of history to a spellbound audience. [(See Genealogical Chart 6).] 
Qualtrough, Catherine (I493)
 
132

ELIZABETH JANE QUALTROUGH (1838-1918) - battleground their farm

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
--------------------
The eldest daughter, ELIZABETH JANE, more commonly called BETSY, was named after two of her father’s sisters. She was a buxom young woman of 20 when she accompanied her parents to the new land.

She appears to have been a practical, efficient sort of girl, ‘right hand’ to a busy mother both on the Isle of Man and as a pioneering newcomer in a strange land.

She married in 1866 (around 27 years of age) WILLIAM ANDREW COWAN, a widower, son of Irish landowners in County Down, who had emigrated to New Zealand in 1863.

Bill Cowan had immediately been caught up in the defence service for war clouds were amassing on the horizon of South Auckland, a preliminary to the Waikato outbreak. All able-bodied males between 16 and 55 years of age were called up to train. He was stationed at redoubts in the Wairoa ranges between Auckland and the upper boundaries of the Waikato District. These would have included Howick and East Tamaki.

More than likely Bill Cowan would have met Betsy at church functions or socials to entertain the militia.

Following their marriage Bill and Betsy Cowan took up land in the Waikato, previously a grant to an officer of the Waikato militia, Captain T. C. Speedy, and sold to them. Part of the farm lay across the site of the famous Battle of Orakau.

(A granite monument erected in 1914 marks the site of the battle although only slight outlines of the trenches are now evident. An Historic Places plaque indicates the Maori and Imperial troop positions at a point where the Kihikihi-Arapuni road cuts through the pa site).

The young Cowans settled down to farming and bringing up their large family, in the first years living under threat of Maori retribution for confiscated lands. Bill Cowan was second in command of the Te Awamutu troop of cavalry under Major William Jackson of Forest Rangers fame. The cavalry patrolled the frontiers of the King Country frequently, protecting settlers from marauding Kingites. Many Maori still bitterly resented the inroads the pakehas were making into the King Country.

Betsy produced eight children – a daughter, Elizabeth Mary, who died in infancy and seven sons. The boys were James, William, Robert, John, Henry, Charles and Walter.

James Cowan inherited his grandfather’s penmanship, and his close association with the Maori in his boyhood gave him a deep understanding of, and respect for Maori Culture. He became an authority on Maori matters and a writer of considerable distinction firstly as a journalist with THE AUCKLAND STAR then as a New Zealand Government Historian and author of international repute. He was mad a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.

James was married twice. His first wife was Eunice Nicholas, a part-Niue Islander, who died in 1909. His second wife was Eileen Stowell, a part- Maori, daughter of Henry Matthew Stowell, a native interpretor known also as Hare Hongi. Eileen Cowell died in 1968.

William, who made a name for himself as a horticulturalist, particularly with roses and chrysanthemums, did not marry and lived in Auckland most of his life. Robert, a civil servant (Railways), married Mabel Coldicutt, of Auckland; John (Jack) entered the New Zealand Police Force and for many years was resident constable at Pukekohe and featured in a number of headline-making trials. He married a Dunedin girl, Helen Brown.

Henry, a bachelor all his life, inherited the family farm which he later sold and replaced with another in the Waikato. On retiring from the land he lived in Auckland. Charles died as a young man; Walter married Annie Elizabeth Gilmour and for a number of years worked in the timber industry in Auckland.

In one of his books, SETTLERS AND PIONEERS, James Cowan writes of his early boyhood thus:

“The farm lay with a gentle tilt to the north. Wheat was much grown and gave large yields. Memory lingers on the many peach groves and cherry groves, Maori planted, laden with the largest and sweetest fruit ever grown.”

(The Rev. John Morgan, ‘civiliser’ of the Upper Waikato in the period 1842-1861, had introduced British horticulture to his native flock and the region was exceptionally self-sufficient and prosperous.)

“.... The farm life was comfortable and happy, however primitive in some ways. Peaches fattened the pigs; even the horses and cattle munched those peaches. We had everything we needed; to the youthful mind that knew no other life it was endless comfort. I came to know later how short cash often was and how settler and storekeeper often had to resort to the barter system in which no money passed.

“Later on I carried to the township (Kihikihi) every Saturday on the saddle in front of me a box of home-churned butter. We got fourpence a pound for it, not in cash, but took it out in groceries.

“.... We were happy at home; those evenings were never monotonous. We had books at any rate. I don’t know how modern youth would survive a revival of those movie-less, radio-less, jazz-less evenings (J.C.’s words in 1940; add T.V., fast cars and fast foods to that!) the only sound from the outside dark the wailing call of the weka in the swamp and the bittern’s occasional muffled boom.

“.... candles were made by the farmer’s wife from tallow; I remember the tin moulds used. Smelly candles they were, but better than nothing, especially when kerosene was hard to get.

“The flax-bush was all-important. No farmer could have done without it, for a score of purposes. The down or pollen of the raupo flowerhead was a substitute for feathers or kapok in filling cushions.

“Harness was made in the early farming days from green cowhide cured with salt and alum. Plough and bridle reins and stirrup leathers were manufactured in that way. Floor mats and carpets were made by Maori neighbours and on these were laid dressed and dyed sheepskins.

“.... The housewife made much use of the abundant fruit. The big honey peaches were cut in slices which were strung with darning needle and thread on string and hung out in the wind and sun to dry; then they were laid out on boards or on sheets of corrugated iron, thoroughly dried in the hot summer sun and finally hung up in festoons in the rafters of the kitchen for future use in pies.

“There was no factory-cured bacon in the pioneer days, for there were no factories. We dealt with our pigs on the farm and we had a hand in every stage from sty to kitchen.”

Betsy’s days would be full, being a good farm wife and mother. James Cowan recalls that his mother was a very reserved person but kind.

She would have known the infamous warrior Te Kooti for, fighting days past, he was respected and even honoured. James Cowan writes:

“Te Kooti was our neighbour in 1884-85. He had a Government allotment, a gift from a grateful, or relieved, country; it was in Kihikihi township and he had a camp for awhile on Andrew Kay’s farm just where the Orakau defenders made their desperate, forlorn attempt to escape.

“He was a man of middle size with grey hair and sparse grey beard. His features were finely cut, his strong nose aquiline, his expression determined, dogged. He was not tattooed, his frame was spare, his shoulders slightly stooped. One of his hands was mangled by a Government bullet in the 1869 campaign.

“The war-worn veteran and spiritual medicine-man (he practised faith healing) often passed through Kihikihi township attended by his faithful cavalcade. In his later years he rode in a buggy with his two wives, stern, resolute looking women who composed his body-guard against revengeful attack by some old enemy. Reputedly each carried a loaded revolver in her blouse”.

Life was not all work. One of the highlights of the year was the Kihikihi racemeeting. In 1886 Te Kooti entered a horse, a grey gelding named Panirau (‘many orphans’) for the Cup. No-one remembers now whether he won or lost.

The Cowans left the Waikato in 1893 to settle in Auckland, living first in Lower Grafton Road and later in Devonport. Bill Cowan died in 1913 aged 73, Betsy died in 1918 aged 80. Both are buried at O’Neills Point Cemetery, Devonport.

Nieces of Betsy – sometimes referred to rather stiffly as “Aunt Cowan” – remember her in her older age as a formal person of upright character and bearing, not given to flippancy or fripperies in dress or demeanour. [(See Genealogical Chart 4.)] 
Qualtrough, Elizabeth Jane (I490)
 
133

EMILY QUALTROUGH (1855-1941) – professional nurse.

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
--------------------
EMILY, the youngest Qualtrough child, also remained single but we know more about her because she lived to the age of 86 and was a very family-conscious person who kept in touch with kith and kin.

She learned nursing skills and, following the death of her parents, went out on private cases, looking after patients in their own homes. She moved about the countryside attending cases as far apart as Hamilton, Thames and Auckland. Her patients included some notable people of the day for not only was she regarded as a good nurse but as a very special sort of person.

Fair-complexioned and blue-eyed, she was gentle and smiling, devoted to her church. “Saintly” and “angelic” are words often used to describe her nature and she abhorred vulgarity.

A great-niece, Mary Gavin, recalls that it distressed Aunt Emily to hear people swear. Why, she would ask, could they not give vent to their feelings just as easily and far less coarsely with, “Oh, scissors! Oh, needles! Oh, pins!”
As well as a good nurse she was a good cook, though it was said that when Emily baked there would be a trail of flour from one end of the house to the other.

After retiring from nursing Emily gave much of her time to church work and took an interest in the Auckland Manx Society. She was living with her nieces Evie and Bell Haddock in Pratt Street, Ponsonby and to those of us who can remember her in those later years, she was the epitome of the ‘little old lady passing by’ of a song popular at the time, dressed formally in gloves and with a hatpin holding a modest black straw hat on her silver head and smelling faintly of lavender water. She would clasp teenage relations to her bosom and murmur, “Dear child!”

Ever family-conscious, it was a sorrow to her that the Qualtrough name would die out with the demise of her brother Thomas’ only son, Jim. Of her brothers, only Willie and Tom had produced families, and Willy’s brood of eight were all girls, Tom’s five other children daughters.

Jim Qualtrough had married in 1927, but nearly 14 years later he was still childless. Then came the news that a baby was on the way. Aunt Emily’s delight could hardly be contained with the news, “It’s a boy!”

Emily asked Jim and his wife Minnie a special favour – could the baby be christened in the family church at Pakuranga? Arrangements were duly made and baby Malcolm James Qualtrough was welcomed into the Methodist Church on Sunday 12 October 1941.

But his little Great-Aunt Emily was not there to savour the moment. She had been ailing for some months and perhaps the excitement of it all had been too much for her for she collapsed and died on the Saturday night prior to the christening. The family carried on with her wishes, however, as all arrangements had been made. It was a poignant hour though for relations who had attended the christening to see Emily’s coffin resting on the spot beneath the altar where the longed-for male descendant had been baptised only the day before.

Emily was interred in the graveyard beside the church she had loved all her life. She had, in 1929, set up a Trust of £100 (sterling) for the upkeep of the property as it had at that time, through disuse, become neglected. The interest on this money was used for the purpose until the building was officially handed over to the Howick Historical Society. [(See Genealogical Chart 4)] 
Qualtrough, Emily (I499)
 
134

JAMES QUALTROUGH (1808 – 1881)

BACKGROUND TO EMIGRATION FROM ISLE OF MAN TO NEW ZEALAND

This background is based on chapter 2 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

The name Qualtrough, like many Manx names that begin with a Q, is of Celtic-Norse origin, and derives from the McWhaltrough clan of Kentraugh, an important estate of early times. The land was given, tradition has it, to the first McWhaltrough (or Mac Whaltroughe) in Mannin Beg (Isle of Man) who was said to be a half-brother of one of the Norse kings.

The Kentraugh estate in its heyday comprised twelve farms, three mills and a large house and a number of smaller farmhouses and outdwellings. Ancient Manx records show Kentraugh Mill was working as far back as 1506, owned by a Robert Qualtrough (McWhaltragh).

A great stone wall ran along the foreshore and is still in existence. Some say this wall was built as an effective shelter against the wild storms of the Irish Sea, others that it was a bastion of defence against invaders; yet others that the powerful southside family of Qualtroughs built the wall as cover for their private and possibly dubious activities – smuggling of whisky and rum-making, maybe. The gates to the driveway of the house were operated mechanically, shutting out intruders.

The Qualtrough name was recorded as far back as 1430 with a William and a Jenkin Mac Qualtroughe being named as Members of the House of Keys (Manx Parliament). In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries some of the family were Deemsters – the lawmakers in various districts of the island who were judge-and-jury in settling disputes and punishing wrongdoers. And there is a ballad telling of the jaunty deeds of one, Captain Harry Qualtrough, a privateer on the side of the British in the Napoleonic Wars – the “Tiger Privateer” it is called.

Fame and fortune wax and wane. Certainly the Qualtroughs tumbled from their pinnacle. Information taken from Mona Douglas’s book, They lived in Ellan Vannin, tells how one of the hereditary owners of Kentraugh lost the ancient seat through the application of a harsh Manx law in the early 19th century.

He had mortgaged the property for £300 (sterling) – quite a sum of money in those days. The mortgagee, claiming financial difficulties, forced the closure of the mortgage and the Qualtroughs were doomed. In default of cash payment the claimed not only the value of the money loaned, with interest, but the estate, including household chattels. This was the entitlement under the law of the land, no matter how harsh.

Had the Qualtroughs not suffered loss of lands and position by the action of kinsmen, it is unlikely that there would be New Zealand lines of the family today.

BIOGRAPHY OF JAMES QUALTROUGH (1803 - 1881)

This biography is transcribed from chapters 4, 5 and 6 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below. The explanatory note in double square brackets [[ ]] at the beginning of chapter 5 is not part of that chapter.
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4 Family Exodus of 1859

Who was Who in the JAMES QUALTROUGH family bound for New Zealand in 1859:
James Qualtrough (51)
Catherine Qualtrough, nee Clague (47)
James, Jnr (23)
Elizabeth Jane (20)
William (19)
Richard (12)
Anne (10)
Thomas (8)
Sarah (6)
Emily (4)

Two sons, both named Henry, had died in childhood. The first Henry died the year he was born (1843). The second Henry, born in 1845, died in 1852.

Their second daughter, Catherine (15) stayed behind with an aunt and an uncle on the Isle of Man. [(See Genealogical Charts 1 and 4 – 8).]

JAMES QUALTROUGH was 51 in 1859 when he left the Isle of Man to settle in New Zealand – not an adventurous boy but a man of middle-age who must have weighed up the pros and cons thoroughly before making the decision. His wife, Kitty, also entering into her middle-age, had borne 11 children.

James, birthplace Arbory, Rushen Vale, in the southern end of the Isle of Man, was the son of William and Catherine (nee Moore) Qualtrough and he had three sisters – Elizabeth, Margaret and Jane.

[(A few words here about these Manx kinsfolk may make it easier to follow our Family Tree later on.] Elizabeth, a dressmaker, did not marry. She died in 1881. Margaret married Edward Keig, sometimes spelt Kegg, and they had a daughter, Betsy and a son Edward. Jane married John Hudgeon. There were no children of this marriage.

Margaret’s son, Edward, married Christian Moore and they produced three daughters named Kathleen, Irene and Marjorie. Marjorie married Herbert Pedder. [See Genealogical Chart 1)].

Going back to James himself, he had married Kitty (nee Clague) at Malew in 1835. Kitty Clague was the daughter of James Clague and Barbara Kinley, of Ballawhetstone, MAlew. Just why their daughter Catherine stayed behind when the rest of the family migrated is not wholly clear except that she seems to have spent with the childless Aunt Jane and Uncle John Hudgeon of Ballakillowey.

Perhaps there was a pull of heartstrings – at 15 years of age Catherine could have been courting. The eldest Qualtrough son, James Jnr. had spent much of his youth with his grandmother Qualtrough, going back to his parents upon her death in 1856. Communities were close to each other.

The names sound formal, copied from documents. The owners were almost certainly called Jim or Jamie, Kitty or Kate among family and friends, for in James’ shipboard diary[, as you will see,] the children are referred to by the diminutives of their given names.

In much later years their nephews or nieces – some of whom are living at the time of writing - used the shortened name with, of course, a respectful prefix of Aunt or Uncle.

It must have taken courage, faith, optimism – and surely a degree of desperation – for a middle-aged couple with eight children to pull up stakes from a settled land and sail to an unknown country on the other side of the world and start all over again.

The Isle of Man was a rural community with little employment for young people other than to work the land. Farms had been supporting families for generations and had been divided and sub-divided. Most holdings were small, most families were big. What could the future promise?

In New Zealand the Government was enticing the “right” kind of settlers – good, experienced farming folk of some substance – with what was popularly called the “40 acre scheme.” (Officially the Auckland Wastelands Act of 1858). To emigrants who could pay their own passage out the Crown would grant land – allotting 40 acres per adult and 20 acres per child above five years of age and under 19 years of age.

James must have been struggling for some time before the decision to emigrate. It seems he had inherited debts from both his father and father-in-law and was obliged to meet them.

The decision was made. Most of the land that was James’s, comprising three farms, one in the north and two in the south of Man were disposed of, belongings were packed. It was good-bye forever to mystic Mannin Beg – Isle of Fairies – where Qualtroughs had lived for hundreds of years.

Towards the end of June (1859) James and Kitty and the family turned their backs on their Island homeland and their past and crossed to England to make ready for the long voyage to the new land. How their thoughts must have been with Catherine who stayed behind. The tears must have flowed at the moment of parting, the hearts ached.

They made for Liverpool where their ship awaited them. It was the Mermaid, already famous for a race against the illustrious Red Jacket in 1854 on the competitive London-Melbourne run. Mermaid had lost upon that occasion but nevertheless she was the pride of the White Star line, a clipper of 1321 tons built in Nova Scotia in 1853 and destined 50 years later to be wrecked of Southport on passage from Liverpool to Quebec.

She was making her first – and only – voyage to Auckland. Thereafter she was to serve the London-Lyttelton run under the Shaw Savill flag (by charter until 1869 when she was purchased) and to make waves in nautical circles with a record voyage of a mere 75 days from Lyttelton to the English Channel (unloading on the 78th) in 1862.

Such a feat was this that Mermaid was accorded a heroine’s welcome when she sailed into Lyttelton in February 1864. The then LYTTELTON TIMES reported that other ships in port flew bunting and fired a salute to her master, Captain Rose.

The first sight of the ship, black-painted hull a foil for the pine-yellow topmasts and furled white cotton sails must have imprinted itself on the minds of the young Qualtroughs.

Author James Cowan (son of Elizabeth Jane) in his SETTLERS AND PIONEERS, writes of the Mermaid:

“The figurehead, carved by a craftsman of rare skill, was the most lovely mermaid ever chiselled. Her long, blue-black hair, as sleek as a seal’s coat, fell and flowed as to the life and in keeping with tradition, she held a comb and a glass in her hand. The siren advanced, bowing with the rhythmic progress of the ship, ushering the sea rover into the realms of blue water. The swell sometimes buried her generous bosom as the bow fell into the hollow and with the next heave upward, lifted her on to the crest and bared her graceful dolphin tail.”

Then again:

“Looking outboard one would have seen that the vessel had a broad yellow band along her covering-board, defining her sea-kindly sheer and her high lift of bow. No make-believe lines of painted gun-ports chequered her sides. That fashion of 13 dummy ports aside was left to the British ships....... double top-sails had just come in in the Merchant Service but so far the Mermaid’s owners preferred the old-style whole sails.”

Mermaid’s master was a Captain White and he was taking some 400 passengers of various classes out to a new life in a new colony – English, Irish, Scottish, German and, it goes without saying, Manx. It must have taken some planning on the Qualtroughs’ part. Imagine the foodstuffs, clothing, medicines, toiletries, books and other domestic needs for the long voyage for 10 souls plus such household effects that could be taken on a ship which were considered essential.

On July 11 the Mermaid was towed down the Mersey River towards the open sea. On July she spread her three columns of canvas, the proud and serene figurehead rejoicing in the tang of the Irish Sea which the Manx family were never again to sail upon – save the eldest son James Jnr. 22 years later following his father’s demise – and it was southward ho!

James Snr. was a tall, good-looking man, educated, courteous, religious and with a dry sense of humour. This we deduce from a photograph taken of him and Catherine before their departure; and from the writings of his diary and descriptions to James Cowan by his mother (Elizabeth Jane also called Betsy). Jimmy Cowan was about 11 years old when his grandfather Qualtrough died so he would have had some personal memories himself.

The version of James Qualtrough’s diary following on here is one of the copies scattered throughout our family. The original was held by the late Mr. J. A. (Bert) Kinley of Ballafesson, Isle of Man, a descendant of daughter Catherine.

We only wish that James had continued to keep such a diary of his life in New Zealand.

Catherine in the photograph, looks neat, well-dressed and slightly formidable, much less a relaxed person than her husband. But who is to say? Perhaps she just took a poor picture. And with a husband and seven children to look after (James Jnr and daughter Catherine living with relations) body-and-mind must have been on the go from morning to night. There were no labour saving devices as we know them.

Upon Kitty and 20-year-old Betsy must have fallen the bulk of the thousand-and-one details of preparing for the family’s personal needs upon the high seas. According to entries in James’ diary, Kitty was also active in helping sick and distressed fellow-passengers throughout the 100-day voyage. Most of all she kept her own dear ones alive and healthy from Mannin Beg to Aotearoa and throughout the years as early settlers.

The voyage was lively. Tragedy, drama, comedy trod the deck of the ship as surely as ever trod boards of theatre. Entries in James’ diary set the springs of imagination a-bubbling.

5. Voyage to New Zealand

[[Explanatory note: James wrote diary entries most days between Friday 15 July and Wednesday 19th October 1859. They relate mainly to the weather (particularly when it caused issues for sailing the ship) and the location, with some notes about life of the passengers on board ship. Only the introduction and the first two and final two entries are included here.]]

Diary of the late James Qualtrough. The MERMAID left Merseyside 11 July 1859 and arrived Auckland 19 October 1859.

We left the Mersey on the 11 July 1859 about 5 o’clock in the afternoon, tugged by the tug boat RATTLER belonging to the tug company. She did not leave until Wednesday morning at 8 o’clock, when the MERMAID set sail and made her own way at about 8 knots an hour. In the afternoon most of the passengers became very sick. On Thursday the 14th we had something like a hospital on board. The worst of us were James and Ellen Martin. I have been very sick myself but I have never lost my spirits. I have been able to join in our prayer meeting with a measure of delight.

Friday 15th Today when I write, the children are playing about in good spirits. My dear wife and Betsy are beginning to knit and to sew. James and Ellen Martin are a good deal better. We have all day long an hubbub, something like a fair with 400 on board.

.....................

Tuesday 18th We are surrounded with coast fowls, from the Islands, all around, of which I think there are some dozens in numbers. Some small smacks and wherrys trading on the coast. The signals from hill to hill tell a ship has reached Auckland now. The first ship that came within hearing, the Captain called out. “What ships are in Auckland?” He was pleased to hear that the MAORI was not in.

Wednesday 19th About 10 o’clock last night, after we had anchored, the pilot came on board. This morning we got near the wharf in good health.

James Qualtrough

6. Early Years in Pakuranga

IT WAS Spring in New Zealand when the jaunty Mermaid swept into Auckland waters well ahead of her illustrious rival, the Maori, on 19 October, 1859.

Triple-coned Rangitoto, awesome guardian of the Waitemata, a volcanic peak merely dormant, dominated the other half-dozen offshore islands.

“Waitemata? It means ‘sparkling waters’.”
The translation rippled through the ship as excitement mounted. The end of the voyage!

Old gravures show Auckland of those days with wooden jetties on a shoreline no longer in existence, high up in what is now a multi-storey Downtown of Auckland City. There were buildings – the first warehouses and business offices, hotels, private guest-houses, a few shops and silhouetted on the skyline, Partington’s Mill. Here and there, a horse-team drawn cart, a bullock wagon, a saddled horse, await further orders and pedestrians moved gracefully on cobbled streets. The men, in narrow-legged trousers, longish jackets and high hats, escorted ladies in full skirts, bonnets and often with parasols. Pictures which included Maoris showed them in European clothing with tattooed faces, many of then bewhiskered, some with long greenstone ear pendants, somewhat incongruous in their sartorial anachronisms.

Grafton Gully – no bridge as yet – had masses of feathery tree ferns, tall kahakiteas and puriris, topped by an occasional kauri in silhouette, highlighted by a stand of golden kowhai in bloom.

There was much open space among the stolid brown buildings, land that sloped away to open country which rolled towards green hills and blue skies on a long horizon.

Auckland in October: warmth in the sun and a brisk sea breeze scudding clouds that held suggestions of a passing shower across the slender neck of land separating the Waitemata from the Manukau. On the waterfront investigating seabirds, keening and exultant in their discoveries, must have touched chords of memory for the immigrants whose home shores were far away.

James had been allocated Crown land out from Papakura, about 45 kilometres southward from Auckland, in the Hunua bush. Exactly where we haven’t been able to ascertain. It comprised approximately 120 hectares on the arithmetic of the 40-Acre Scheme.

After the preliminaries and formalities of landing and the business at the Land Office, the Qualtroughs were introduced to a bush settler-farmer who lived about two kilometres away from their allotment. He was to take them by bullock cart to their land and give them a hand settling in. James paid him £1 (sterling) a day, which he did not consider excessive in view of the work and time involved; and no doubt for the useful information he could impart.

Papakura was on the Great South Road, which had evolved from the portage tracks of the Maoris to a highway metalled as far as Drury. There was actually a daily coach service from Auckland to Drury, run by a Mr. William Young. It was known, grandly, as the “Auckland, Papakura and Drury Diligence.”

It would not have accommodated the Qualtroughs and their possessions, though, for according to THE NEW ZEALANDER, issue dated 23 December 1857, it was capable of carrying .... “nine substantial yeoman or traders and even nine ladies (provided their several courses of vestments were not open to Mr Punch’s rebuke) with comfort and without distress to the horses.” The PUNCH reference was to a topical joke taken from the famous magazine which was eagerly-awaited reading from ‘Home’.

From James Cowan’s SETTLERS AND PIONEERS comes the following information on the Qualtrough’s first night in the bush – and New Zealand.

“.... The height and thickness of those trees and the density of branch and leafage amazed the stalwart stranger who stood gazing at them, axe in hand. Their boughs stretched far overhead, they were looped together with a rigging more intricate than a ship’s; cable-like grey ropes, round as hawsers and as strong, hung down from the hazy ceiling, like ropes in some woody belfry.

“.... The axeman walked out from the bush fringe to the tents gleaming against the dark of the tall timber. In the little camp there were two tents and a tarpaulin shelter for the piles of baggage trunks, shipboard chests, boxes of food stores and a hundred supplies.

“While he (James snr.,) had explored the bush edge and tested the tree-temper with eye and nose and axe, his family had reduced the miscellaneous loads from the bullock-dray to some order against the night.

“.... Most of their land was covered with standing bush – a tall forest of red and white pine, puriri, rata, kohekohe; on the hills the great kauri; but timber is of no use to the pioneer after enough had been pit-sawn from it for the home buildings. The rest would have to go up in smoke and add to the fiery pall which would presently cover most of the bushland sections.”

Betsy’s most vivid memory of that first night in the bush was of the meal that the mosquitoes made of their faces – “the stinging flies” they called them.

Their neighbour (unnamed) came around the next morning to tell them he had arranged with a group of Maoris down at Papakura Creek to build the newcomers a nikau whare to live in until they could put up a more permanent dwelling.

“.... Two cheerful young Maoris came up and greeted the pakehas. Both could speak some English. They set to on a neat whare with beautifully-made walls of nikau palm leaves, artistic as well as useful, with a thick roofing of fern-tree fronds. By the end of the second day, with the assistance of the white family in cutting, fetching and carrying, there was a rain-tight house, one that would be cool in hot weather and warm and windproof in cold....

.... “gradually the settler and his family fitted themselves into the conditions of the country, on the edge of the interminable forest. It was not so very difficult for these country-bred folk. They cut their way slowly into the bush with the nearby Maoris to call upon for help and bush-sense. When a little ground was cleared the neighbour lent them his bullocks and plough. To the Maoris a few pounds of tobacco and gifts of clothes were more acceptable than money.”

James Cowan observes that the friendly and helpful spirit of the Maoris helped mightily in establishing immigrants on the land in the first two decades of British settlement. Unfortunately it did not last. He writes:

“In the third year of the MERMAID family’s life in the bush the Waikato war began. The kindly Maoris of the South Auckland country were forced into the struggle ....

“.... That unhappy check to the peaceful subjugation of the bush and the winning of a livelihood from the newly-turned soil altered the course of life for many a border family. The tragedy of war, like so many far greater wars before and since, could have been avoided. At any rate, the frontier settlers and the Maori farmers were not the warmakers.”

Perhaps the rumblings of war were behind the decision of James to change his land. We can only speculate on the reasons. Perhaps the distance from church and school played a big part, for James was a deeply religious man, well-educated and keen for his children to be educated.

Perhaps he realised that to turn virgin forest into farmland would take more years of prime-of-life than he felt he had left to him. Perhaps the isolation was too much for Catherine and the girls.

Documents show that James Qualtrough, farmer, of Papakura, purchased land at Pakuranga from Alfred Buckland, stock and station agent, on 4 December, 1860. He bought 118 acres 32 perches (47 hectares) on the main Panmure-Howick highway for which he paid £1,180 (sterling).

East Tamaki, Howick and Pakuranga were already well settled. The populace included retired soldiers, men of the Royal New Zealand Fencibles who, on leaving military service, were given a cottage and an acre of land.

Thousands of immigrants were to arrive in the Auckland areas in the 1860’s and Tamaki-Pakuranga land was favoured for its relatively easy access by water or across country to the port of Auckland, about 23 kilometres away.

The area was good land for wheat and vegetable growing, with ready markets at Howick where troops were stationed, and in Auckland itself. Wheat was transported in sacks to Partington’s Mill – known as the Victoria Flour Mills – and butter and eggs were sold.

For 15 years (1850-1865) access to Auckland across the Tamaki River depended upon a punt operated by a Joseph Williams. According to records this was a pretty uncomfortable, dangerous experience for those forced to use it. The punt was often holed, or its guiding chain broken; and the transport of stock by punt could mean delays of an hour or more. There was a strong current at the point of crossing and mishaps were common.

In his book OLD MANUKAU, historian A. E. Tonson writes:

“.... The traffic crossing in 1862 was quite considerable and the daily average was about 180 settlers and children, 58 horses, 23 carts and 100 cows and sheep.”

Prompted by dissatisfaction from the settlers, the Tamaki Bridge Act was passed in 1864 and a bridge was put across the river in 1866. A. E. Tonson writes:

“The settlers were able to cross on a new 19-span bridge built of materials brought over from Australia. Costing £17,025 (sterling) the bridge was 576 feet in length and with a width of 21 feet and at the Papakura end was a swivel apparatus which opened to provide a passage of 40 feet for large vesels.

“.... In 1916 a new 800-ft concrete bridge was opened and this remained until demolished in 1963 after being replaced in 1959 by the present bridge.”

A. E. Tonson draws a graphic picture of the bridge in use in early days. viz:

“Travelling to town from Pakuranga was quite an event in the early years and on Fridays, dressed in their best, the various families with horse and trap would head for the city market. The toll to cross the bridge was 6d for a horse and cart. As cutters used the river, it was often a race to reach the bridge before the gates were closed and the keeper cranked the span around.”

Not all towngoers went in style. It was quite common for the young and sturdy to walk the distance there and back, sometimes carrying a 25-kilo. sack of flour on their shoulders on the return journey.

A school was not officially established in the locality until 1869 – weekly fee 9d for seniors, 6d for juniors – but James had his younger children taught privately, paying one shilling per week per pupil. The schoolroom was set up in the teacher’s home.

James was a prime mover in having the Methodist Church at Howick, then a predominantly Catholic population, moved to Pakuranga for the use of faithful Wesleyans. [(See chapter on history of the church.)]

James and Catherine died in the same year – 1881 – and both are interred in the graveyard on the site of the church before it was moved to the Howick Historic Village.

We don’t know too much about life at Pakuranga between 1860 and 1881. Certainly it was not a land flowing with milk and honey if James and Catherine had expected such, which is most unlikely.

Although the land was fertile there were two exceptionally bad winters between 1860 and ’63 and the latter year also saw the outbreak of the Waikato Wars which disrupted the lives of all families. Within three months of war being declared, on July 12, all able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 55 were on active service. Youths under 16 and men turned down for active service trained for the Home Guard.

Although Pakuranga was not actually attacked, Maori raiders killed isolated settlers and looted their homes as close to the settlement of Howick – where the Militia was stationed – as Whitford and Maraetai. A family named Trust (how ironic!) were massacred only a couple of miles from Howick in a particularly brutal and unjustified killing.

The Waikato Wars ended officially in 1864 and Auckland areas at least settled into peace. But the year of fear had imprinted itself into the minds of the young Qualtrough children for both Thomas and Emily, though aged only 12 and 8 respectively at the time, told tales of burying valued possessions in the front garden of their house in case the family had to flee to safety. Tommy, though so very young had duties with the Home Guardsmen should the area be attacked, fetching and carrying guns and water – so he said. Memories of his help being appreciated might have been a little dramatised in true ‘boy’ fashion.

The farm was still financially encumbered upon James’ demise. James Jnr. took it on although he himself had a small piece of land at Karaka. By this time Willy, Richy and Tommy had gone off to seek their fortunes in the Waikato, which was forging ahead as the Golden South of the 60’s and 70’s. 
Qualtrough, James (I400)
 
135

JAMES QUALTROUGH (JNR) 1836-1896 maintained family farm

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
--------------------
JAMES, more than likely called Jimmy, eldest of the family had spent much of his youth with his paternal grandmother but returned to his parents’ home upon her death in 1856 when he would have been 20.

He was a young adult when the family migrated and in the only reference of a personal kind we have been able to find – James Cowan’s SETTLERS AND PIONEERS – he is described, along with his much younger brother Richy as “.... giving promise of a strength and sturdiness to equal their father’s.”

Jimmy worked on the Qualtrough farm at Pakuranga and seems not to have ventured further afield than Auckland. Property deeds record that he did have land of his own at Karaka. With changes of nomenclature over the years and lack of detail, it is hard to be sure if the land was in the area we now know generally as Karaka, out from Papakura, or closer to the Tamaki area now known as Karaka Bay.

Of all the family he was the only one to return to the Isle of Man, going back in 1882 as executor of his father’s will to settle up affairs on the Island. [(See Appendix II)]

After an absence of 22 years and as a man approaching his middle-age did he have regrets over leaving his homeland? Was he disappointed that reality failed to recapture the glow of boyhood memories? What were his feelings towards his sister’s motherless children? He must have visited them and must have stood beside the grave of the young Catherine, recalling the years of childhood, the parting and the exchange of letters.

He returned to the farm at Pakuranga, rejoining sisters Anne and Emily, the latter away from home a lot after she became a professional nurse.

The family, by this time, had dispersed. Betsy and Sarah had married earlier as had Willy, now farming at Orakau. Tom, a young widower, was contracting in the Waikato and Richard we understand had gone to Australia.

In 1886, at the age of 50, James married Miss Alice Farnsworth, of Otahuhu, daughter of early settlers. Although he had no children of his own, James must have had an interest in their welfare, for records show that he was a member of the Pakuranga School Committee in 1886 and in 1893 was elected to the Auckland Education Board.

James was unable to lift mortgages on the family farm and had to let it go. This was sometime in the years of 1891-1892. His last years seem to have been in poor health and he died in 1896 at the age of 60. He is interred beside his parents in the churchyard cemetery at Pakuranga. [See Genealogical Chart 4).] 
Qualtrough, James (I489)
 
136

RICHARD QUALTROUGH (1847-1921) - medal for service

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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RICHARD, called Richy as a child and Dick later on, must have inherited his father’s strength, according to James Cowan’s references to pioneer days.

As a very young man, and like brothers William and Thomas – he left Pakuranga to make a life for himself in the developing Waikato. He joined the Waikato detachment of the Armed Constabulary Field Force, a body similar to the Canadian North-West Mounted Police, but more actively involved in warfare than the “Mounties”.

The Armed Constabulary had been formed in 1868 to assist the militia keep the peace following the outbreak of the New Zealand Wars and reached its peak of activity and renown in Taranaki against the Hauhaus between 1879-1883.

The “Men in Blue” were courageous, settler-farmer background who could ride well, shoot straight and were prepared to defend what they considered their own. Even after the official end to hostilities the Armed Constabulary patrolled borders, accompanied parties of surveyors pushing through new roads and manned the redoubts and blockhouses set up for the protection of settlers from Maori raiding parties.

Dick Qualtrough was among those awarded The New Zealand War Medal for his services (under the list of medallists he is called ‘Quatborough’ so the Manx name must have been an odd one even then) and gained the rank of sergeant. He took part in an exploration of the Cambridge -Te Awamutu main road with a party lead by Sub-Inspector Stuart Newall.

The Armed Constabulary was dissolved in 1885 and the Militia kept the peace thereafter. Stuart Newall, with the rank of Lieut-Colonel, left New Zealand with the Fifth Contingent for the Boer War and had previously – May, 1898 – commanded the force that settled a dispute in the Waima Valley, near Rawene, in Northland.

Richard Qualtrough, however, like so many settlers who had lived and worked beside the Maori in a harmonious relationship, had no real heart for fighting. He slipped off to Australia (to avoid further military service, it is said within the family) and wandered around, out of touch with his brothers and sisters until 1919, and a sick man, he returned to New Zealand to spend his last years with his kinsfolk.

He stayed a short time with Tom and his family in Hamilton, then went to live with a niece, Alice McGhie (William’s eldest daughter) and her husband George, at Kihikihi. Later he went to live with another niece, ‘Bunny’ Schwarz (William’s fifth daughter) and her husband Bruno, at Matamata, where he died – nursed by his sister, Emily – in 1921, aged 74.

He is interred in the Hautapu Cemetery, Cambridge. [(See Genealogical Chart 4).] 
Qualtrough, Richard (I495)
 
137

SARAH QUALTROUGH (1853-1921) – mother of ten.

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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LIKE HER brothers and sisters, SARAH grew up on her father’s farm at Pakuranga. Only six when she came to New Zealand she would have attended the private school her brother Thomas had spoken of, and watched the menfolk go off on military service and seen her big sister Betsy go from home as the bride of William Cowan.

It was while visiting Betsy at Kihikihi that Sarah would have met her future husband John Haddock, a member of the Armed Constabulary stationed at Orakau Redoubt. John, like Bill Cowan, had come from Ireland and he was a regular visitor to the Cowan home. It was one of his duties, too, to pick up the day’s ration of milk for the Redoubt from the Cowan farm. Pretty Sarah took John’s eye.

Romance blossomed and they were married on February 24, 1876, from Sarah’s home in Pakuranga. John had transferred to the constabulary of the New Zealand Police Force in 1872 and at the time of his marriage was stationed in Hamilton.

They lived in Hamilton for three years where their first three children were born – Edwin Qualtrough, Sarah Evelyn and Winnie Bella.

In 1880 the family moved to Ngaruawahia where their second daughter Emily Bellfield was born, thence to Dargaville where three more children were added to the family – John Mosstown (Moss), William and Herbert.

From Dargaville the next shift was to Warkworth. The change of scenery brought a change of sex in the issue of little Haddocks for after a run of three sons a daughter, Ada Lilian, came into the world. Yet another son followed in 1889 with the birth of Mervyn.

Warkworth brought tragedy into the lives of Sarah and John. Firstly Ada, four years old, became sick and died in 1891 to be followed by Mervyn, only three years old, in 1892. Their tiny graves on a hillside above Warkworth bear mute testimony to the risks of pioneer life.

Sarah and John produced their last child, their 10th, on September 16 1891, a son whom they named Bertie Mervyn although somehow he became known as ‘Pat’.

In 1895 after 25 years of service John left the Police force – a long career when you consider his 6 years of previous service with the Irish Armed Constabulary.

John, not one to sit around, decided to break in land in the Waikato. William went off with John to farm at Karamu in the Waipa County. The life was considered too rough and rigorous for the womenfolk so John installed Sarah and the girls in a comfortable cottage in Pratt St, Ponsonby, Auckland. Edwin and Moss also stayed with their mother and worked in Auckland.

After some years farming, John became ill and returned to the family in Pratt St, where he died in 1903.

The family drifted into their own lives. Edwin, the eldest, who was working for the (then) Northern Steamship Company, was the first to marry. His bride was Elizabeth Jane Butterworth, of Auckland.

Emily – known as Emil – married a master mariner, William Edmund Sinnott; Moss married Williamina Cornwell, farmed for a while, then went into the timber business at Paeroa.

William farmed at Karamu, joined up in World War 1 and was killed in action at Gallipoli. Herbert (Bert) farmed at Karamu and married a local girl, Edith Rose Smith.

‘Pat’ served in the Merchant Navy in World War 1 and became a ship’s engineer on the England-New Zealand run. He married, on the Isle of Man, May Harrison, a great granddaughter of James and Catherine Qualtrough. (They would be first cousins once removed).

The Haddock side appears to have had more contact with the Isle of Man than other branches, for Moss, during his war service, managed a visit to the Island and was warmly welcomed into the hearts and homes of descendants of Catherine, his unknown aunt.

Evie and Bell remained single and lived at the Pratt St. home with their mother and their Aunt Emily who joined them some time after her sister Annie’s demise. Grandson Selwyn Haddock can remember visiting them as a boy and seeing Sarah, then an old lady, in her rocking chair surrounded by the scions of her family.

Some time before her death in 1921, Sarah went to live with Emily in Te Awamutu. She is interred in the Purewa Cemetery alongside her husband. [(See Genealogical Chart 8)] 
Qualtrough, Sarah (I498)
 
138

THOMAS QUALTROUGH (1851-1944) – first to own plough.

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
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THOMAS, though little more than a stripling, went off to the Waikato, seemingly the Mecca of young men keen to get on, once the land wars had ended. He had grown up on the farm at Pakuranga and attended a small private school.

At 21, he was the first man in the Waikato to possess his own plough and he worked as a contractor around the district, including the large Firth estates of Matamata, breaking in land. He also owned land at Orakau.

It was hard work and it had its dangers. One of the stories he used to tell his family and, later, his grandchildren, was of the occasion in 1873 when he was ploughing land on the Grice and Walker cattle run at Roto-o-Rangi. As he drove his team afield a party of Maoris, armed, appeared out of the Manuka scrub and ordered him to go back.

They told him that the land was still disputed and warned him that if he pushed ahead he would be killed. Tom Qualtrough spoke Maori and understood their character. They frequently gave fair warning of their intentions and there was much bitterness still at the sale of land they considered theirs.

Tom returned to the station and reported the incident, refusing to complete the contract until the argument was settled. Management ridiculed the threat and ignored Tom’s advice to go and talk it out. But Tom stayed firm. “I know the Maori,” he said. “He doesn’t warn you for nothing.”

Others went out the next day and the Maoris struck. One man, Timothy Sullivan, was shot and tomahawked. His head was cut off and his heart cut out and these were carried through the King Country in a gruesome procession of triumph. It was particularly bad luck for Sullivan as the Maoris were after Walker, the part-owner of the station and his manager, a man named Parker.

Tom also told of seeing the old chieftain Te Kooti under interrogation and playing ‘possum’, pretending unconsciousness. Someone lighted a match under his nose and with a yell Te Kooti came to life.

Both Willy and Tom were excellent horsemen and thought little of riding from the Waikato to the Tamaki at a weekend to see their parents and to court their girls. Willy had his eye on Kate Lovie, Tom was keen on Jane Bell, of Pakuranga.

On one occasion Tom rode from the Waikato to Pakuranga on the Saturday and on the following evening men at the frontier-station at Roto-o-Rangi were astonished to see Tom’s horse, without rider, saddle or bridle, come trotting up and put his head over the gate. It seems that the horse had got out of his paddock at the Pakuranga farm and made short work of the journey home – 320 kilometres in two days taken, literally, in his stride. The horse must have swum the Waikato River at Ngaruawahia on his way home for it is unlikely the punt operator would have given a riderless horse a free crossing; who knows? Perhaps the animal had horse-sense enough to wait for a group of people to assemble to cross and mixed with the crowd.

Thomas was 28 when he married Jane, the daughter of a Pakuranga landowner David Bell and his wife Mary. They lived out from Cambridge at Taotaoroa and the following letter from the newlywed Jane to a niece, Jane Andrew, of Pakuranga, was written on December 16, 1878.

“Dear Jane,

I was so pleased to hear from you and I suppose you have been expecting an answer to it long before this, but I hope you will excuse me this time. I will try and not be so long in answering your letters.

They were telling me the last time I heard from them down there (Pakuranga) that you and Georgina recited your dialogue so well at the Good Templars entertainment and I hope you enjoyed yourself that night.

I often think of you all down there and wish I could come to see you sometimes. I have got very few neighbours up here and I felt very lonely for awhile at first but I am getting used to it now. We live near the road to Matamata and there are a lot of people passing every day to and from Cambridge.

“We are milking three cows now and I churn in a bucket as I have not got a churn yet. It takes a long time to come sometimes. There was one week I was churning for about six hours and Tom took a turn and he thought some warm water would fetch it. But I told him I had put some in before and I went away to get a dish to put the cream in and as soon as my back was turned, he got a kettle and poured in all the boiling water thinking to surprise me with the sight of butter when I came back. It was all melted and we just had to bake it up. He never tries the boiling water since that.

“I suppose Christine is growing a big girl now. I hope Benjamin is quite strong now and that all the rest of my nephews and nieces are quite well, not forgetting your father and mother. I hope Georgina will be able to come up here and stay awhile at Christmas. It seems such a long time since I saw them all down there. I expect they are all kept busy with the harvest and dairy. They have not commenced to cut any hay up here yet. The harvest must be a good deal later up here than down there. John King said when he came up they were all mowing their hay down there and that is more than a month ago. I suppose you will be having your Christmas holidays down there; are you going away any place to spend them? It is a pity you could not come up here with Georgina. I would be so glad to see you but I suppose your mother could not spare you so long away on account of wee, wee Christina being so little yet.

“Tell your father he is to be sure and come to see us when he comes to the Waikato. I have not seen your Aunt Hannah yet. I think I will go and see her soon now as I have got a pony and saddle.

“Dear Jane, I will have to draw to a close for the time. Hoping this will find you all well, give my best wishes to your father and mother, brothers and sisters and accept the same for yourself from your
Affectionate Aunt
Jane Qualtrough

(Please write soon.)

Another lonely little lady, Jane, the miles separating her from her loved ones. Sadly, Jane died in childbirth a year later and Tom remained a widower for seven years.

On August 4, 1886, he married Mary Ann (Polly) Prince, 23 years old youngest daughter of Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Prince, English settlers at Alexandra (now known as Pirongia). The Princes had moved from Pirongia to Ohaupo where Joseph Prince had set up the first Waikato Blacksmith business in 1877.

(This Ohaupo home, typical of its day, was demolished about 1975 and had been on the Great South Road between Ohaupo and Te Awamutu, a weatherboard cottage with its living rooms in front and sloping down room by room to a low storage shed at the back. It was not far, and on the opposite side of the road, from the small hillside cemetery where a number of Prince forebears are interred.)

Polly was very musical and played the harmonium for the Sunday services of the Anglican church at Alexandra (Pirongia) a sturdy building that had doubled as a redoubt for the settlers when attack by Maoris threatened at the time of the wars. The church was surrounded by a moat and had a drawbridge.

It was said that Polly could play the service in the dark, a feat no doubt achieved from necessity as the church had only one oil lamp hanging in the centre of the nave. After marriage to Tom Polly attended church nearer home, St Paul’s Methodist Church in Collingwood Street, Hamilton. Polly, a well-made good-looking young woman of strong character and lively personality, had the voice of an angel, so it was said (but, alas, not a temper to match, also said!).

Not only did she sing in the choir for 25 years but passed on her musical abilities to others in the family. (A daughter, Elaine, had an outstanding contralto voice and was trained by a leading teacher of singing of the day, Mrs. Cyril Towsey).

Tom and Polly produced six children, two of whom were the oldest – and nearest – direct descendants of the emigrant family at the time of our Reunion in 1979.

The children, five girls, one boy, were: Catherine Amy; Elsie Mary; James Thomas; Ida Emily; Elaine Annie and Ruby Constance.

Amy married Charles Hardley, one of a plumbing supplies family business in Auckland; Elsie married George Smith, a builder, of Te Awamutu; James worked for the (then) Farmers’ Auctioneering Company as an insurance assessor in Hamilton and married Scots-born Minnie Creighton, of Auckland; Ida married William Martin, a storeman, and lived in Te Kuiti for many years; Elaine married Douglas Hooper, a contractor then farmer of Otorohanga who later retired to Morrinsville; Ruby married Norman Lee, a watchmaker and jeweller, of Te Awamutu.

(It is an interesting sidelight that Norman’s father, the Rev. William Lee, minister of the Grafton Road Methodist Church in his last circuit, used to conduct services at Pakuranga at times then dine with the Qualtrough family in their farmhouse afterwards.)

Tom had set up in business as a butcher in Hamilton in 1879. His slaughterhouse and run-off then occupied 30 hectares of land which is now part of the Frankton Junction railway yards.

He and Polly first lived in Victoria Street (now the centre of the city) situated on the same section as the butchery business but about 30 metres behind and to one side of the shop, up a wide driveway.

A story from an early copy of the WAIKATO TIMES, written by G. H. Roche, concerns a practical joke perpetrated at the time:

“It seems there were persistent rumours of a ‘monster’ having been seen in the Waitewhiriwhiri Creek which fed into the Waikato River at the (then) No. 1 Bridge.

“A couple of pranksters acquired a bullock’s head from Qualtrough’s slaughterhouse, dressed it in a white sheet, and set it up in a tent in the saleyards while a sale was in progress. They charged one shilling per person to witness the unveiling of the ‘monster’ which took place when the tent was full.

“The joke was not appreciated; verified, wrote Mr Roche, by the fact that no-one could be found in town who would admit to having seen the show – although, later, the Waikato Hospital benefited from a donation of a couple of pounds (sterling) paid in single shillings.”
(Twenty shillings to the pound in those days.)

Did Tom ever learn who the practical jokers were? No-one could get more from him than a quiet smile.

Somewhere about 1902 the Qualtroughs moved to a house a mile further down Victoria Street, then a few years later they bought a large, villa-type house in Clifton Road, on the banks of the river. Tom frequently acted as interpretor for the Maori Land Courts and Law Court in Hamilton and his daughter Ruby can remember coming home from school at times to find the front lawn of their property a Maori meeting-place. “Some of the older women looked like Goldie paintings with their dark-blue moko (tattoo on chin), white hair under black headscarf and smoking pipes. They would call out to me in Maori and wave as I hurried inside, just a little bit frightened by their strangeness.”

Tom was for a period of about six years a Borough Councillor then, having disposed of his business – business was not his forte – he returned to contracting. He was very fond of animals and somehow it is not easy to picture him involved in the slaughter of beasts.

He kept horses for the family’s use. Later on transport was by ‘gig’ in those days prior to motor coaches.

After the family had married and left home Tom and Polly gave up their big house and bought a smaller place in Mill Street. Polly had poor health for many years but Tom, a big, robust man, kept a beautiful garden. Polly predeceased Tom, dying in 1933 at the age of 70. Tom, then aged 82, went to live with his eldest daughter, Amy, and her husband Charles Hardley, in Herne Bay, Auckland.

Tom took up bowling for an interest and became a popular figure at the West End Bowling Club. Always a good walker, he would trudge old haunts for miles, even in his late eighties, whenever he went to stay with his youngest daughter, Ruby, and her family in Te Awamutu from time to time.

He died in Auckland in his 94th year and is interred alongside Polly in the Hamilton East cemetery. [(See Genealogical Chart 7)] 
Qualtrough, Thomas (I497)
 
139

WILLIAM QUALTROUGH (1840-1919) - ’Wiremu’ –Waikato identity

This biography is transcribed from chapter 7 of A Quota of Qualtroughs (authors Elizabeth A. Barlow and Joy McDougall, published in Matamata, New Zealand by Elizabeth A. Barlow in 1984), by kind permission of Elizabeth Feisst. For further information on Qualtroughs worldwide see http://www/qualtrough.org.

Text in square brackets [ ] refers to matters in A Quota of Qualtroughs that are not included in the biography below.
--------------------
William (Willy) seems to have taken to the pioneer life like the oftquoted duck to water and was not one to get his feathers ruffled easily.

He had pride in his appearance, too, for as a youth walking all the way from Pakuranga to Auckland town on business trips, he would go barefoot, carrying his boots under his arm to keep them clean to change into on hitting Queen Street.

The route the foot-sloggers followed took them around the beaches, over by ferry to Pt. England, across St. John’s College area, into Parnell via a bridge at Hobson’s Creek, then to Mechanics Bay and up the hill to Shortland Street and Queen Street.

He served in the Waikato War and, with a younger brother, Tom, went contracting in the district before settling on a farm.

He courted Catherine Mary Lovie, who lived in Panmure, and would ride horseback from Te Awamutu and Roto-o-Rangi at a weekend to visit her. It was 100 miles over rough country with several streams to ford and the swift-flowing Waikato River to cross – by punt – at Ngaruawahia. Willy would set off early on Saturday, arrive in the evening, eat with and talk with his Kate and leave the next day.

The horses of those days were, it seems, even tougher than the men.

Willy and Kate married in 1872 and settled on a property he acquired at Orakau after the confiscation of Maori lands when the Waikato War ended. They produced a family of eight – all girls – most of whom were born at Orakau.

The children were Alice, Elizabeth, Margaret, Anne, Mary, Amy, Kate and Lilian.

Their fifth daughter, Mary, told her own family that she had started school at four years of age, walking the four miles each day to the schoolhouse at Kihikihi.

At one time in their childhood, when Willy and Kate were called way from home, they were reluctant to leave their daughters alone in such an isolated spot so enlisted the aid of an older nephew to act as protector. The girls remembered the night very well for, amusing themselves by telling ghost stories, they worked themselves into such a state of terror, the male stalwart as well, that they nailed blankets over the windows and doors to keep out the spooks.

The family later shifted to a farm at Kihikihi and a vivid memory was of the eruption of Tarawera in 1886. The rumblings of the fiery mountain blowing its top were clearly heard and the skies were darkened by the ash.

Another story handed down concerned a young lad shopping with a penny during the lean days of 1880 “A farthing worth of sugar, a farthing worth of flour, a farthing worth of candles and a farthing change please” he instructed.

Inflation obviously hadn’t been invented then and there was more truth in the old saying, “A halfpenny’s riches in a farthing’s eye.”

Willy had been brought up in a strictly Methodist home. Kate Lovie was an Anglican. The children were Presbyterians. Perhaps it was a studied compromise; maybe just the propinquity of the kirk. Their children’s memories were of a very happy home life with good neighbourliness instilled by example. Farmers in the district helped each other with haymaking or when stock was in trouble calving, or bogged in swampy paddocks.

Because Willy had no sons he allotted many farm tasks usually considered men’s work to his girls. The most hated was digging the potatoes. Milking and feeding calves were more popular for the animals were regarded as personal friends.

On one occasion Willy being unable to leave the farm, he assigned Annie and Mary (nick-named ‘Bunny’ from babyhood) to take a wagonload of pigs to the bacon factory at Hautapu. The girls set out at dawn. Taking the pigs over a primitive road that seemed to go on forever, meeting an old Irish woman on the way they asked her the time. “Half past o’clock,” she informed them. And no doubt it was.

When darkness fell and the girls hadn’t returned, the family became anxious about them. At last Willy said, relief in his voice, “Here they come!” Though he couldn’t see them he could hear the heavy squelching of the horses’ hooves as they plodded through the swamp.

William had many Maori friends and was affectionately called Wiremu – wonder what they made of the name Qualtrough? The family was present when a monument to the chief Rewi Maniapoto was unveiled at Kihikihi with Rewi himself watching the ceremony from the verandah of the hotel across the road.

In 1902 the William Qualtroughs bought a farm at Fencourt, just out romf Cambridge. (Now the Fencourt Stud). Realising that a creamery was needed in the district and that the Cambridge Dairy Company was not able to finance it, Willy donated an acre of his land for the project and local farmers provided the labour for the factory to be built.

An old barn on the Fencourt property became the community centre for the district and the Qualtrough girls had happy memories of dances, with music provided by accordion, magic lantern shows and wedding parties to which people came from miles around.

Kate Qualtrough tells the story of a friend who, when off to visit them, met a quail on the road. “Where are you going” asked the girl and the quail replied in perfect English (said she), ”To Qualtroughs! To Qualtroughs! To Qualtroughs!”

The word must have got around – all welcome, ladies a plate – or just a ‘flight’ of fancy?

At the dances, it added to the fun to make up rhyming couplets about those present. From a box of memories comes : “Did you notice there the two Miss Q’s who were arranged in navy blues.”

Prior to and during World War 1, William gave permission for the army to use his land for troop training. A letter in his family’s possession is a note of appreciation from Major-General Godley, dated 13 May, 1913. It reads:

“.... I desire to express my very sincere thanks to you for the valuable assistance you have rendered to the Territorial movement in the Auckland District by permitting the free use of your land for manoeuvres during the recent Brigade Camp.

“Exercises in the field, to be of value, should not be cramped and the fact that the troops were able to move about, unrestricted, over a large area of ground, contributed in no small degree to the great measure of success which was undoubtedly achieved and which was almost entirely owing to your generosity.”

William’s last move was to a smaller farm closer to Cambridge. The property had a picturesque two-storey house set among magnificent old trees including magnolias and rhododendrons. Two giant redwoods at the gate were landmarks in the district. Appropriately, it was named ‘the Glen’.

The grandchildren and great-grandchildren can recall Christmas and other family gatherings with tables set outside beneath the flowering and rich-scented magnolias.

When the gentle Catherine Mary died in June 1919, Willy was so grief-stricken that he said to his daughter, Kate : “In six months’ time I shall be with her.”

And he was. He died December 31, 1919.

They are both interred in the Hautapu Cemetery, Cambridge.

The Qualtrough girls - except Lizzie, who died in 1907 of consumption – all made their homes in the Waikato.

Alice married George McGhie, a farmer of Kihikihi; Maggie wed Henry Feisst, a farmer of Matamata; Annie and Mary (‘Bunny’) married farming cousins, Ernie and Bruno Schwarz, respectively. [(See further reference in chapter on planning the Reunion).] Amy married Charlie Shaw, who was employed at the Cambridge Cream Factory; Kate and Lil remained single and lived together in Cambridge for many years. Rather charmingly, if olde worlde, they were referred to locally as Miss Kate and Miss Lil. [See Genealogical Chart 5).] 
Qualtrough, William (I491)
 
140

A family tree on myheritage.com gives Maria's year of birth as about 1844. However, her death entry says that she was aged 44 when she died at 78 Merrion Square, Dublin on 24 Dec 1894, givng a birth year of about 1850. Maria's occupation was given as 'Private Lady'. The informant of Maria's death was Margaret Nelson of 78 Merrion Square. Her relationship (if any) to Maria is not known. 
Maunsell, Maria Augusta Synnot (I10252)
 
141

A grandson of Charles Synnot says that he was born under the name of Charles Kelly on 31 Jan 1858 in Ballintate, Ballymoyer, Co Armagh to Sarah Kelly. Sarah died on 27 Jul 1859 in Bridgeton, Glasgow (her death certificate is in the name Cynot). Charles was therefore only 18 months old when his mother died, and he was brought up by Sarah's mother, also Sarah Kelly (nee McIlroy) in Glasgow, with her other 6 children. Charles changed his name from Kelly to Synnot when he was about 13.

A son of Sarah Kelly said that she died in a poor house. 
Kelly, Sarah (I9064)
 
142

A grandson of Charles Synnot says that he was born under the name of Charles Kelly on 31 Jan 1858 in Ballintate, Ballymoyer, Co Armagh, and died in Bridgeton, Glasgow on 10 Jul 1940. His mother, Sarah Kelly, died on 27 Jul 1859 also in Bridgeton, Glasgow (her death certificate is in the name Cynot). Charles was therefore only 18 months old when his mother died. He was brought up by his grandmother Sarah Kelly nee McIlroy in Glasgow, with her other 6 children. Charles changed his name from Kelly to Synnot when he was about 13. A Poor Relief Report of 14 Nov 1871 relating to Charles says "... boy brought up under the name of Charles Kelly" but the name on the report is "Charles Kelly Synnot".

Charles was a sewing machine fitter living at 10 David Street, Bridgeton at the time of his marriage in 1899. On the marriage certificate, his father was named as Parker George synnot, a millwright, deceased. In fact, Parker was alive then, he died in 1901. Charles' mother was named as Sarah Synnot, maiden name Kelly, deceased. Parker and Sarah did not marry.

In the 1901 census Charles, a sewing machine fitter, was at 186 Baltic Street, Bridgeton, Glasgow with his wife Harriet and 2 children Helen (1 year old) and Lewis (1 month old).

When Charles died in 1940, his occupation was given as a sewing machine fitter, even though he was 79 years old. He was living at 17 Queen Mary Street, Bridgeton. His father was named as Parker George Synnot, millwright, deceased and his mother as Sarah Synnot nee Kelly, deceased. The informant of the death was Charles' daughter Helen Cooke of 16 Queen Mary Street. 
Synnot, Charles (I9065)
 
143

A son of Sarah Kelly (mother of Rose's brother Charles) said that Sarah died in a poor house. He (the son) had been told that Parker had a child to a daughter of a cobbler or miller and he used to take soup to them. The daughter, Rose, was born about 1856 in Armagh. She emigrated to New Zealand about 1862-1864 and was fostered by W. B. Montgomery in Auckland. One researcher strongly believes that her mother was a Montgomery, and that this was the reason that Rose stayed with this family – but that there is no hard evidence of this. Further, it is likely that no one told Rose who her mother was. Family documents all state Armagh as Rose's birthplace and Parker Synnot as her father. The researcher’s great grandmother wrote a family tree sheet which says that Rose took the name Montgomery. 
[Unknown], [Unknown] (I9282)
 
144

A son of Sarah Kelly had been told that Parker Synnot had a child to a daughter of a cobbler or miller and he used to take soup to them - this would have been Rose and her mother. A search for Rose Synnot in the Ballymoyer Church records did not find her name in the index, but it is possible that alternative surnames were not searched. If Rose was christened under her mother's name, her record may still be available.

One researcher has found that Rose Synnot was the illegitimate daughter of Parker George Synnot. She was born about 1856-1857 in Armagh. The researcher believes that Rose and Charles Synnot are both children of Parker George Synnot, but that they have different mothers. Rose emigrated to New Zealand about 1862-1864 and lived in the household of William Bartley Montgomery, her guardian, at Lucas' Creek (now Albany) then at Auckland. She married George Mason in 1875 in Auckland - the marriage notice describes her as the eldest daughter of Parker Synnot, Esq., County Armagh, Ireland.

Another researcher considered that confirming Rose’s mother was very difficult. The researcher strongly believes that her mother was a Montgomery, and that this was the reason that she stayed with this family – but that there is no hard evidence of this. Further, it is likely that no-one told Rose who her mother was. Family documents all state Armagh as her birthplace and Parker Synnot as her father. The researcher’s great grandmother wrote a family tree sheet which says that Rose took the name Montgomery. However, there are no known references to Rose as Montgomery. She is not mentioned in William Bartley Montgomery's will and, if she had taken his name, she probably would have been mentioned. She is not in the list of his children in his newspaper obituary. Rose referred to him as 'Mr Montgomery' and he is recorded as guardian on her 'Intention to Marry' form.

Robert Mason, a son of Charles Henry Mason and grandson of Rose, wrote in an undated letter to his daughter Margaret:
“... Your Great Grandma. Maiden name was Rose Synott. She came to N.Z. as a child with a family named Montgomery. She came from County Armagh in Ireland. She landed at the mouth of the Wade River at Okura which is a little north from Brown Bay Auckland. She married your great grandfather in Auckland...”
It seems likely that Rose's trip to Okura was on a coastal ship from Auckland, as Okura is too small to be a destination for an ocean-going vessel. Okura is only 8 km from Albany, formerly known as Lucas' Creek, and the home of W. B. Montgomery in the 1850s and early 1860s.

After marrying George Mason, in 1875, Rose spent the rest of her life in Claudelands, Hamilton East. She and George separated about 1896, as she was in Hamilton East then while he was in Paeroa, and he later moved to Great Barrier Island.

Two obituaries for Rose on 5 Jan 1933 in the Auckland Star and the New Zealand Herald shed light on her later life, but little on her life before arriving in New Zealand. They are summarised below:

Rose died aged 76, after a long illness. She was then living at Te Aroha Street, Claudelands, Hamilton. She arrived in New Zealand in 1861 - with her parents, according to the Herald - and spent her childhood in the Bay of Islands and Auckland. She married George Mason, a well-known Newmarket nurseryman, in Auckland in 1875, and they came to Hamilton in the steamer Rangiriri on their honeymoon. Mr. Mason took up land at No. 1 Bridge, where he conducted an agricultural nursery. He later moved to Claudelands. He predeceased Rose by 13 years.

Mrs. Mason lived in Hamilton for 62 years. She was survived by five sons, Charles Mason, Richard Mason and James Mason, Hamilton; Mr. George Mason, Taihoa; and Mr. Arthur Mason, Papakura; and five daughters, Mrs M. Short*, Tauwhare; Mrs. M. Windsor, Frankton; Mrs V. Peterson, Taumarunui; Mrs. F. Kelly*, Leamington; Mrs. F. Grimes, Claudelands. There were 40 grandchildren and 23 great-grandchildren.
* Short - should be SHAW. Kelly - should be KEELEY 
Synnot, Rose (I9056)
 
145

A summary of Thomas Mossman's life is in his obituary in the Daily Telegraph of 26 June 1899:

'MR THOMAS MOSSMAN

Many will read to-day with regret the notice of the death of Mr Thomas Mossman. The deceased gentleman had a large circle of friends, who were often interested in his old time reminiscences. There are very few amongst us now who can remember the return of our troops at the close of the Peninsula war, and who were able to take an intelligent interest in the battle of Waterloo. The old gentleman was born on the first day of 1800, and was therefore at the time of his death within six months of 100 years of age. He was born on Lord Powiscourt’s estate near Dungannan, in Ireland. After completing his education he went to England, and was engaged in lace manufacturing for about twenty-five years. It was during this period that the notorious riots occurred and that Nottingham Castle was fired and destroyed. The Duke of Portland (whose confidence he enjoyed) swore Mr Mossman in as chief of the special constables.
At the end of this period he inherited the family home and returned to Ireland. Fifty-two years ago he married Miss Eleanor Dilworth, who was also born near Dungannan, on Lord Ranfurly’s estate. After a few years’ residence at the old home, he tired of gentlemanly inactivity and sold out and went to Canada and the States. He remained in America about thirteen years, and then came to Auckland at the repeated request of his brother-in-law, the late James Dilworth, of Auckland. He settled in Waikato for a number of years, finally removing to Hawke’s Bay about twenty years ago. He leaves a wife and four children, Mr W. J. Mossman and Mrs D. B. Watt, of Poverty Bay, Mr H. A. Mossman, of Hastings, and Mrs G. Stubbs, of Clive. The deceased did not attribute his advanced age to any special system, but to habitual care to avoid all kinds of excess, and to simple living. His medical attendant pronounced him sound and free from disease. He died peacefully, perfectly conscious and happy. His childlike faith and Christian life attracted the attention of all who knew him.' 
Mossman, Thomas (I6175)
 
146

A transcribed entry in James Haldane Watt's family bible reads:
'Sarah-Jane Watt the fourth child and first daughter of James Haldane Watt & Jane Sanders Neilson his wife, was born at Auckland 10th September 1857 and baptized by the Reverend Thomas Hamer, Minister of the Independent Church there. Called Sarah after her maternal grandmother and Jane after her mother. Entered in this my family bible (signed J.H. Watt) Baptized 29th November 1857. Gen.49.25 – Ruth 2.12' 
Watt, Sarah Jane (I1494)
 
147

About 1940, Greg Aldridge visited William Hockin's citrus orchard property in Perth while on service overseas in World War II. The orchard is now swallowed up in urban development. Greg also met William's 2 daughters Patricia and Suzanne there. He met them again years later when in Australia. 
Hockin, William (I98)
 
148

According to Alumni Dublinenses - 1924 edition Transcription, a Samuel Frend, born in Co. Cork, son of Samuel, started at Trinity College on 10 Jul 1699, aged 17, his tutor being Mr Goodman of Co. Cork. There is no indication that he graduated. Apart from being born in Co Cork, this could be the right Samuel and, if so, he was born about 1682. But there was a marriage between Samuel Frend and Elizabeth Davies in 1681 in the Diocese of Cork and Ross, so there was possibly another Frend family 
Frend, Samuel (I15858)
 
149

According to a family tree in the database "Interesting Family Trees - Genealogy," by C. Houston at http://www.chouston.f2s.com/ there was, in addition to Thomas, Isabella, and their 2 children Abigail and Margaret (born 1832), another daughter, Margaret, born 1836, who married Henry Buist and died 24 Aug 1869. The evidence for this Margaret is said to be a monumental inscription at Peebles. Henry Buist is in the 1851 and 1861 censuses, but appears to be unmarried.

Given the low probability of 2 daughters with the same name alive at the same time, and the lack of detail for the second Margaret, it seems unlikely that she was a child of this family. In addition, the 1841 census has only Thomas, Isabella, Abigail and one Margaret aged 8. 
Ritchie, Thomas (I14188)
 
150

According to a letter from Selina Sarah Martin to her niece Elsie Martin, Diane and her sister Kitty were both very beautiful women.

Diana's death notice in the Londonderry Journal read:
'DIED
On the 16th inst., in this city, Diana, wife of Robert Martin, Esq., A gent of the Sunday School Society for England, in this and adjacent counties, and second daughter of the late Samuel Sealy, Esq., of Dingle. She had been restored, in a great measure, from a severe indisposition, but a sudden and violent return of the complaint terminated her mortal existence in less than one hour. She was a most affectionate wife and mother, and has left a husband and eight children to deplore her removal. She lived in constant dependence on the Divine Redeemer - to her, therefore, to die was gain.'

Of the 8 children noted in her burial notice, only 5 have been identified.

She was buried at Londonderry Cathedral on account of her husband's position as Agent of the Sunday School Society of Ireland, the main provider of primary education in Ireland in the early 18th century. 
Sealy, Diana (I12368)
 

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